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  • Basic Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts
    Basic Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts The seven fundamental rules which are the basis of the Geneva Conventions and the Additional Protocols: 1 – Persons hors de combat and those who do not take a direct part in hostilities are entitled to respect for their lives and their moral and physical integrity. They shall in all circumstances be protected and treated humanely without any adverse … Continue reading Basic Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts
  • “How was Hachalu Handesa killed? ሃጫሉ እንዴት በማን ተገደለ? كيف قُتل هاشالو هانديسا؟” on YouTube
  • =======በወንጀል ጉዳይ የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ እና አቀራረብ=========
    በወንጀል ጉዳይ የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ እና አቀራረብ =======.   ለንቃተ ህግ ትምህርት .====== የወንጀል ህግ ዋና አላማ የህዝብን ሰላም እና ደህንነት ማስጠበቅ ነው፡፡ በመሆኑም ሰዎች የእለት ተእለት ኑሯቸውን በሚመሩበት ሂደት ውስጥ ህገመንግስታዊ መብቶቻቸው ሊጠበቁላቸው የሚገባ መሆኑ እንዳለ ሆኖ እነሱም የሌላውን ሰው መብት የማክበር እና ከመጣስ የመቆጠብ ግዴታ አለባቸው፡፡ይሁንና ይህን ግዴታቸውን ቸል በማለት የሌላውን ሰው መብት የሚጥሱ ከሆነ የወንጀል፣ ፍትሀብሄራዊ እንዲሁም አስተዳደራየአስተዳደር ህግ እና የሰብዓዊ መብት አፈፃፀም  የአስተዳደር ህግ እና የሰብዓዊ መብት አፈፃፀም ተደጋግሞ እንደተገለፀው የመንግስት ስልጣን በወርድም በቁመትም እየሰፋ በመጣ ቁጥር ለዜጐች መብትና ነፃነት ፀር ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ የስልጣንን አስፈላጊነት አምኖ ተቀብሎታል፡፡ ውጤታማ አስተዳደር እንዲሁም ቀልጣፋ የአገልግሎት አቅርቦት እንዲኖር የሚያስር ሳይሆን የሚፈታ ስልጣን ያስፈልጋል፡፡ ሆኖም ከህግና ከህገ መንግስት የሚያፈነግጥ ስልጣን ከጥቅሙ ጉዳቱ ያመዝናል፡፡ የበዘፈቀደ ድርጊት፣ ‘እንደፈለግኩኝ እሆናለው እፈልጣለው እቆርጣለው!’ የሚል አካሄድ አቅመ ቢስ የሆነውን ዜጋ የመኖር፣ በነፃነት የመንቀሳቀስ፣ የመናገር፣ ሀሳብን የመግለፅና ንብረት የማፍራት መሰረታዊ መብት አለገደብ ይሸረሽራል፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ የሰብዓዊ መብትን በማስጠበቅ ረገድ ያለው ሚና የሁለቱን ትስስር በሚገባ ያሳየናል፡፡ ህጉ በሰብዓዊ መብት አጠባበቅና አፈፃፀም ላይ ያለውን አዎንታዊ ተፅእኖ በሚገባ ለመረዳት ከሰብዓዊ መብቶች አተገባበር አንፃር የመንግስትን ግዴታ መተንተኑ አግባብነት ይኖረዋል፡፡ እነዚህም ሚናዎች (ግዴታዎች) የማክበር (respect) የማስከበር (protect) እንዲሁም የመፈጸምና የማስፈፀም (enforcement) ናቸው፡፡ በመጀመሪያው መብቶችን የማክበር የመንግስት ሚና ዜጐች ነፃ ሆነው መብታቸውን ሲጠቀሙ ከየትኛውም የመንግስት አካል የሚመጣ ጣልቃ ገብነትን ይገድባል፡፡ በተለይም መሰረታዊ በሚባሉት በህይወት የመኖር፣ የመፃፍ፣ የመናገር፤ የፈለጉትን ሀይማኖት የመከተል፤ በነፃነት የመዘዋወርና ንብረት የማፍራት መብቶችና ነፃነቶች በተግባር የሚረጋገጡት መንግስት እጁን ሲሰበስብ ነው፡፡ እነዚህ መብቶች በመንግስት በተለይ በስራ አስፈፃሚውና በስሩ ባሉት የአስተዳደር ተቋማት ውሳኔ፤ ትዕዛዝ፤ ደንብና መመሪያ አማካይነት አደጋ ላይ ሊወድቁ ይችላሉ፡፡ ህገ መንግስቱ የበላይ ህግ እንደመሆኑ ይህን የሚቃረን ህግ፣ ውሳኔና አሰራር ሁሉ ተፈፃሚነት አይኖረውም፡፡ ይህን መሰሉ የህገ መንግስታዊነት ጥያቄ በአስተዳደር ህግ ውስጥ አይወድቅም፡፡ ይሁን እንጂ የህገ መንግስታዊነት ብቻ የሚመስል ጥያቄ በአስተዳደር ህግ ማእቀፍ የሚሸፈንበት አጋጣሚ ሰፊ ነው፡፡ በአንድ የአስተዳደር ተቋም የወጣ መመሪያ በህግ አውጭው ከተሰጠ የውክልና ስልጣን በማለፍ የዜጐችን ሰብዓዊ መብት የሚገድብ ሆኖ ከተገኘ በውስጡ የህገ መንግስታዊነት (constitutionality) ጥያቄ ያዘለ ቢሆንም በዋናነት ግን የአስተዳደር ህግ ሊመልሰው የሚገባ የህጋዊነት (legality) ጥያቄ ነው፡፡ ልዩነታቸውን የበለጠ መረዳት እንዲያስችልን የሚከተለውን የድሮው የገቢዎች ሚኒስቴር የአሁኑ የገቢዎችና ጉምሩክ ባለስልጣን መመሪያ እንመልከት፡፡ ማንኛውም የጉምሩክ ፖሊስ ሰላማዊ ስልፍና የስራ ማቆም አድማ ማድረግ አይችልም፡፡ ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ የማድረግ መብት በኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ መንግስት ለማንኛውም ሰው የተረጋገጠ መብት ነው፡፡ መብቱን የሚያጎናጽፈው የአንቀጽ 30 ንዑስ ቁጥር 1 እንዲህ ይነበባል፡፡ ማንኛውም ሰው ከሌሎች ጋር በመሆን መሳሪያ ሳይዝ በሰላም የመሰብሰብ ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ የማድረግ ነፃነትና አቤቱታ የማቅረብ መብት አለው፡፡ አንድ መመሪያ በስራ አስፈፃሚው አካል ሲወጣ ከህግ አውጭው በግልጽ የተሰጠ የውክልና ስልጣን (Delegation) ሊኖር ይገባል፡፡ መመሪያው የውክልና ስልጣኑን ገደብ ካለፈ ከስልጣን በላይ (Ulta vires) ነው፡፡ ስለሆነም በህግ ፊት ዋጋ አልባ (null and void) ነው፡፡ የገቢዎች ሚኒስቴር ይህን መመሪያ ሲያወጣ የስልጣን ምንጩን የጉምሩክ ባለስልጣንን ለማቋቋምና አስራሩን ለመወሰን የወጣው አዋጅ ቁ. 368/1995 አንቀጽ 8 (2) (ሐ) እንደሆነ ይጠቅሳል፡፡ ይህ የተጠቀሰው የህግ ድንጋጌ እንዲህ ይነበባል፡፡ የጉምሩክ ህግ እንዲያስከብር ከፌደራል ፖሊስ ኮሚሽን የተመደበን የፖሊስ ኃይል ሚኒስቴሩ የፌደራል ፖሊስ አዋጅን ተከትሎ በሚያወጣው መመሪያ መሰረት በስራ ያሰማራል፡፡ ያስተዳድራል፡፡ ጥፋት ሲገኝም ያሰናብታል፡፡ ይህ አንቀጽ የጉምሩክ ፖሊስ ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ እንዳያደርግ በመመሪያ እንዲከለክል ለገቢዎች ሚኒስቴር ስልጣን አይሰጥም፡፡ ከተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ግልፅ ስልጣን ባልተሰጠበት ሁኔታ የወጣው ይህ መመሪያ ህጋዊነት ሆነ ተፈፃሚነት የለውም፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ይህን መሰል መመሪያዎች በዘፈቀደ እየወጡ የዜጐችን መብትና ነፃነት እንዳይጥሱ በተለያዩ መንገዶች በመቆጣጠር መንግስት ሰብዓዊ መብት የማክበር ግዴታውን እንዲወጣ ያደርጋል፡፡ የመንግስት የማስፈፀም ኃላፊነት አብዛኛውን ጊዜ ከማህበራዊ፤ ኢኮኖሚያዊና ባህላዊ መብቶች ጋር በቀጥታ ተያይዞ ይነሳል፡፡ መንግስት በዜጐች መብት ላይ ጣልቃ አለመግባቱ ወይም እጁን መሰብሰቡ ብቻ አይበቃም፡፡ ለዜጋው መሰረታዊ አገልግሎቶችን ማለትም ጤና፣ መብራት፣ ውሃ፣ መንገድ ወዘተ… ካላቀረበ ነፃ መሆን በራሱ ፋይዳ የለውም፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ እና የሰብዓዊ መብት ትሰስር ከመንግስት የማስከበር ግዴታ አንጻርም ሊቃኝ ይችላል፡፡ ከዚህ አንጻር መንግስት ሰብዓዊ መብትን በማስከበር ኃላፊነቱ መብት እንዳይጣስ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልቶች በህግ እና በተቋማዊ አደረጃጀት የማጠናከር፣ በመብት መጣስ ጉዳት ለደረሰበት ዜጋ ፈጣን ፍትህ የሚያገኝበትን ስርዓት መዘርጋት አለበት ማለት ነው፡፡ በአጭር አገላለጽ ሰብዓዊ መብቶች እንዲከበሩ መንግስት የዳበረ የአስተዳደር ህግ እና የአስተዳደር ህግ ስርዓት መቅረጽ፣ መትከልና ማጐልበት ይጠበቅበታል፡፡ ዊ እርምጃ ሊወሰድባቸው የተገባ ስለመሆኑ  በተለያዩ ህጎቻችን ላይ መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡ እነኚ እርምጃዎች እንደየጉዳዮቹ ባህሪ በፍርድ ቤት ወይም በአስተዳደራዊ ወይም አስፈጻሚ  ተቋማት ሊወሰዱ የሚችሉ ናቸው፡፡ የወንጀል ተጠያቂነትን በተመለከተ ፍ/ቤቶች በዋናናት እና በብቸኝነት ፍርድ የመስጠት ስልጣን ያላቸው ስለመሆኑ በህገመንግስቱ አንቀጽ 79(1)ስር ተቀምጦ የሚገኘው ድንጋጌ ያመላክተናል፡፡ በመሆኑም ፍ/ቤቶች የዳኝነት ስራቸውን በማከናወን ሂደት ውስጥ የሚቀርቡላቸውን ክሶች በመቀበል ማስተናግድ እና ፍትሃዊ እና ተገቢውን ፍርድ መስጠት የሚችሉት ጉዳዩን ለማረጋገጥ የሚችል በቂ ማስረጃ ሲገኝ ነው፡፡በወንጀል ጉዳይ ፍርድ ቤቶች ጉዳዩን ከማስተናገዳቸው በፊት ቅድሚያ ሊከናወኑ የሚገባቸው ዋና ዋና ጉዳዮች አሉ፡፡ እነኚህም የወንጀል ምርመራ እና ክስ አመሰራረት ሂደቶች  ናቸው፡፡ በመሆኑም ፖሊስ ከዐቃቤ ህግ ጋር በጋራ በመሆን  በሚያደርገው የምርመራ ስራ አንድን ድርጊት ፈጽሟል በሚል የተጠረጠረን ሰው ለፈጸመው ወንጀል እንዲቀጣ በማድረግ እራሱን አድራጊውንም ሆነ መሰል ተግባራትን የሚፈጽሙ ሰዎችን ለማስተማር ይቻል ዘንድ ፍርድ ቤት የሚቀርቡ ከሆነ ተከሳሽን ጥፋተኛ ሊያስብሉ የሚችሉ ማስረጃዎችን በሚገባ ማሰባሰብ እና የምርመራ መዝገብ ማደራጀት አለበት፡፡ ቀላል የማይባል ቁጥር ያለው የህብረተሰቡ ክፍል በዚህ ረገድ ካለው የግንዛቤ ማጣት እና ለህግ ተገዢ ለመሆን ፍቃደኛ ካለመሆን ጋር ተያይዞ በምርመራ ወቅት ፖሊስ በማስረጃነት የሚፈልጋቸው መረጃዎችን እና ማስረጃዎችን ካለመግለጽ አንስቶ እስከ መሰወር የሚደርስ ተግባራት ሲፈጽሙ እናስተውላለን፡፡ ይሁንና የምርመራ ስራ ያለህዝብ ተሳትፎ እና ትብብር ውጤታማ ሊሆን የማይችል በመሆኑ ህዝብ የመንግስት አይን በመሆን ህገ ወጥ ተግባራትን ከማጋለጥ አንስቶ መረጃዎችን እና ማስረጃዎችን ለመርማሪው አካል በመስጠት የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ ስርዓቱን በባለቤትነት ስሜት መደገፍ መቻል አለበት፡፡ በዚህ ጽሁፍም ፖሊስ በሚያከናውነው የወንጀል ምርመራ ስራ ውስጥ ማስረጃዎችን እንዴት ሊያሰባስብ እና ስለሚቀርቡበት እንደሚገባ፣የማስረጃዎችን ምንነት እና አስፈላጊነት፣ ስለ ማስረጃዎች ተቀባይነት፣ ህዝቡ መጫወት ስለሚገባው ሚና እና ስለ ማስረጃ ጽንሰ ሀሳብ ዋና ዋና ነጥቦችን ለመዳሰስ ጥረት ይደረጋል፡፡    1.የወንጀል ማስረጃ ምንነት ህጎቻችን ማስረጃን የሚመለከቱ አያሌ ድንጋጌዎችን በውስጣቸው የያዙ ቢሆንም ማስረጃን ግልጽ ሊያደርግ የሚችል ትርጉም ሰጥተውት አንመለከትም፡፡በመሆኑም የማስረጃን ምንነትን ለመረዳት  የተለያዩ የህግ ሊቆች ለቃሉ የሰጡትን ትርጉም ማየቱ ተገቢ ነው የሚሆነው፡፡ ሪቻርድ ሜይ የተባለው የህግ ጸሀፍት ለማስረጃ በሰጠው ትርጉም ማንኛውንም ፍሬ ነገር ወይም መደምደሚያን ለማረጋገጥ ወይም ለማስተባበል የሚጠቅም መረጃ ነው፡፡በክስ ማሰማት ሂደትም በጭብጥ የተያዙ ፍሬ ነገሮችን ለማረጋገጥ ወይም ለማስተባበል በሚል የሚቀርብ መረጃ ነው ይላሉ፡፡ በሌላ በኩል ማስረጃን ፍሬ ነገርን ወይም በጭብጥነት የተያዘን ጉዳይ መኖር አለመኖርን ውሳኔ በተመለከተ ውሳኔ ለሚሰጠው የዳኝነት አካል ለማሳመን በማሰብ የሚቀርብ መረጃ ነው በሚል ሊተረጎምም ይችላል፡፡ ከነኚህ ትርጉሞች የምንረዳው ማስረጃ የአንድን ነገር መፈጸም፣ወይም መፈጸም ግዴታ ሆኖ እያለ ባለመፈጸም ህግን መተላለፍ በወ/ል የሚያስጠይቅ በሆነ ጊዜ ድርጊቶቹ እውነት የተፈጸሙ መሆኑን ጉዳዩ ለሚቀርብለት ፍርድ ቤት ለማሳመን የሚቀርቡ ሲሆን በሌላ በኩል ተከሳሽም የቀረበበትን ክስ በተመለከተ ያለመፈጸሙን ለፍርድ ቤቱ በማረጋገጥ ለማስተባበል የሚያቀርባቸው መረጃዎች ናቸው፡፡ለምሳሌ በስርቆት ወንጀል የተከሰሰ ሰው ድርጊቱን በእርግጥም ፈጽሞታል ወይስ አልፈጸመውም የሚለውን በፍርድ ቤት የሚያዝ ጭብጥ ለማስረዳት ማስረጃዎች ወሳኝ ናቸው፡፡በመሆኑም ድርጊቱን መፈጸሙን የሚያረጋግጡ የተለያዩ ማስረጃዎችን ማቅረብ የግድ ይሆናል ማለት ነው፡፡ተከሳሽም ቢሆን ድርጊቱን ያልፈጸመ መሆኑን የሚያስረዱለትን የተለያዩ ማስረጃዎችን የማቅረብ እና የማሰማት መብት አለው፡፡በመሆኑም በቀጣይ ርዕስ በጥልቀት የምንመለከተው መሆኑ እንዳለ ሆኖ ግለሰቡ ድርጊቱን ሲፈጽም የተመለከተ ሰው የሚሰጠው የምስክርነት ቃል፣ በፈጸመው መንጀል ምክንያት እጁ የገባው የወንጀል ፍሬ(ስልክ፣ ገንዘብ፣ አልባሳት ወ.ዘ.ተ) እነኚ ማስረጃች እንደየባህርያቸው በተለያዩ መንገዶች የሚርቡ ሲሆን የሰው የምስክርነት ቃል ከሆነ ምስክሩን አቅርቦ በማሰማት፣ የሰነድ ማስረጃ ከሆነ ሰነዱን አቅርቦ ይዘቱን በማሳየት እንዲሁም በኤግዚሂቢትነት የሚቀርብ ዕቃ ከሆነ ይህንኑ ዕቃ በማቅረብ ፍርድ ቤቱ ግንዛቤ እንዲወስድ በማድረግ በጭብትነት የተያዘውን ፍሬ ነገር መኖር ለማስረዳት እና የመደምደሚያውን ትክክለኛነት ለማረጋገጥ ይቻላል፡፡ ምስክሮቹ የሰጡት ወይም የሚሰጡት ቃል፣ ከቀረበው ሰነድ ላይ ወይም ዕቃ ላይ የተወሰደው ግንዛቤ ወይም መረዳት ማስረጃ ስንለው እነኚህኑ ማስረጃዎች ፍርድ ቤት ለማቅረብ የተጠቀምንባቸው ማለትም ምስክሩ፣ ሰነዱ እና ዕቃው ማስረጃን የማቅረቢያ ዘዴ በማለት ለያይተን መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡ በሌላ በኩል ከላይ ከጠቀስነው ዝርዝር ሀሳብ አንጻር በመረጃ እና በማስረጃ መካከል ያለ ልዩነት በውል መታወቅ አለበት፡፡ኣብዛኛው የማህበረሰብ ክፍል በሁለቱ ሀረጎች መካከል ያለውን ልዩነት በውል ለይቶ አያውቀውም፡፡ ማስረጃዎች ሁሉ መረጃዎች ሲሆኑ መረጃዎች ሁሉ ግን ማስረጃ ሊሆኑ አይችሉም፡፡ማስረጃ ማለት ሰዎች ከጥናት፣ ከንባብ፣ ከሰዎች ጋር ከሚደረግ ግንኙነት፣ ቀድሞ ከነበረ እውነታ ወይም ፍሬ ነገር እና በተግባር ከተገኘ ልምድ የሚመነጭ የሰዎች እውቀት ማለት ነው፡፡እነኚ እውቀቶች ሁሉ መረጃ እንጂ ማስረጃ ላይሆኑ ይችላሉ፡፡ የማስረጃን ባህሪ ከላይ ተመልክተና::በመሆኑም መረጃዎችን በማስረጃ ደረጃ እንዲገኙ እና ከላይ ለተጠቀሰው አላማ ጥቅም ላይ ለማዋል መረጃዎቹ ተጠባጭ ወደሆነ አስረጂነት ደረጃ ከፍ እንዲሉ ለማስቻል የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ የሚጨጫወተው ሚና ጉልህ ነው ማለት ነው፡፡ለምሳሌ አቶ ለማ ከዚህ ቀደም ሰዎችን በህገ ወጥ መንገድ ወደ አረብ ሀገር ሲልክ እሰማለው ወይም ይልካ ሲባል እሰማለው የሚለውን የአቶ ምናሴን ንግግር ብንመለከት ግለሰቡ አቶ ለማ ድርጊቱን ሲፈጽም በቀጥታም ሆነ በተዘዋዋሪ የተመለከቱ ሳይሆን  ከተለያዩ ምንጮች የሰሙትን እውቀታቸውን ነው የገለጹት፡፡በመሆኑም ግለሰቡ ወ/ሉን ከመፈጸሙ በፊት ያለው ባህሪ ስለፈጸመው ወንጀል ማስረጃ ሊሆን አይችልም፡፡ይህ ማለት ግን አይጠቅምም ማለት አይደለም፡፡ ከግለሰቡ የተገኘው መረጃ በምርመራ ሂደት የሚበለጽግ ከሆነ በማስረጃነት ሊጠቅም  ይችላል፡፡ምክንያቱም ፖሊስ ከዚህ መረጃ በመነሳት በሚያደርገው የምርመራ ስራ ድርጊቱን የፈጸመው የተባለው ሰው ስለመሆኑ የሚያስረዱ ተጨባጭ ማስረጃዎችን እንዲሰበስብ ይረዱታል፡፡ ማስረጃ ተፈጸመ የተባለን ወንጀል አፈጻጸም እና መችየት፣ የፈጻሚን ማንነት፣ በወንጀል ተግባሩ የተገኘው ጥቅም እና የደረሰን ጉዳት እና የመሳሰሉትን ፍሬ ነገሮች ለማረጋገጥ የምንጠቀምበት መረጃ ነው፡፡     2.የማስረጃ አስፈላጊነት ማንኛውም ከሳሽ ላቀረበው ክስ ፍ/ቤት ፍትሃዊ ውሳኔ እንዲሰጥለት እና እንደ ክሱ ጥፋተኛ ይልለት ዘንድ ማስረጃዎችን በማሰማት ማሳመን አለበት፡፡ተከሳሽም የቀረበበትን ክስ ለማስተባበል እና ፍርድ ቤት በነጻ እንዲያሰናብተው(ተከላከል ከተባለ በኋላ) ማስረጃዎችን አቅርቦ ማሰማት እና ማስረዳት(ማሳመን)አለበት፡፡እንዲሁም በቀረበበት ክስ ላይ የመጀመርያ መቃወሚያ ያለው እንደሆነ መቃወሚያውን የሚያረጋግጡለትን ማስረጃዎች አቅርቦ ወይም አስቀርቦ ማስረዳት ይችላል፡፡የቅጣት ማቅለያ ምክንያቶችንም በተመሳሳይ በማቅረብ ሊያስረዳ ይችላል፡፡ፍርድ ቤቶችም የሚሰጡት የመጨረሻ ውሳኔ ተከራካሪ ወገኖች ከሚያቀርቧቸው ማስረጃዎች አንጻር የሚወስዱትን ግምት መሰረት በማድረግ ነው፡፡በመሆኑም ክስ ከመመስረቱ በፊት በቂ እና ፍርድ ቤትን ሊያሳምን የሚችል ማስረጃ ማሰባሰብ ተገቢ እና ወሳኝ ጉዳይ ነው፡፡በተለይም በወንጀል ጉዳይ ክስ የሚመሰርተው ዐቃቤ ህግ እንደመሆኑ መጠን ክስ ከመመስረቱ እና ወደ ፍርድ ቤት ከመላኩ በፊት በቂ እና ክስን ለመመስረት የሚያስችል ማስረጃ የተሰበሰበ መሆኑን ማረጋገጥ አለበት፡፡በዚህ መንገድ የተሰበሰበው ማስረጃ በፍርድ ቤት የሚቀርብ ከሆነ በክሱ ላይ የተጠቀሱት ፍሬ ነገሮች ስለመኖራቸው ማሳየት የሚቻልበት እድል ሰፊ ይሆናል፡፡ከዚህ የምንረዳው አቃቤ ህግ ክስ በሚመሰርትበትም ሆነ ፍርድ ቤቶች በቀረበላቸው ክስ ላይ ግራ ቀኙን አከራክረው እና መርምረው ውሳኔ ለመስጠት ይችሉ ዘንድ ማስረጃ የሚጫወተው ሚና የማይተካ መሆኑን ነው፡፡ የትኛውም አይነት የወንጀል ድርጊት መፈጸሙ ብቻውን ቅጣትን ለመጣል በቂ አይደልም፡፡ይልቁንም በድርጊቱ ውስጡ ያሉትን ፍሬ ነገሮች ሊያስረዳ የሚችል ከድርጊቱ ጋር በቀጥታም ሆነ ቀጥተኛ ባልሆነ መንገድ ተያያዥነት ያለው፣ በህጋዊ መንገድ የተገኘ እና ተጨባጭነት ያለው በቂ ማስረጃ ሊኖር የተገባ ነው፡፡ይህ ከሆነ የወንጀል ተግባራትን የፈጸሙ ሰዎች ከተጠያቂነት እንዳይድኑ ከተጠያቂነት ነጻ ሊሆኑ የሚገባቸው ሰዎች ነጻ መሆናቸው እንዲረጋገጥላቸው ማስረጃ ቁልፍ ሚናን ያበረክታል፡፡ 3.የማስረጃ አይነት በወንጀል ጉዳይ የሚሰበሰቡ ማስረጃዎች በጭብጥነት የተያዘ ፍሬ ነገርን ለማስረዳት ከምንጠቀምበት ዘዴ አንጻር እና ማስረጃው ሊያስረዳው ከተያዘለት አላማ አንጻር በሚል በሁለት ዋና ዋና ባህርያት ከፋፍለን መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡ ማስረጃዎች ፍሬ ነገርን ወይም የመደምደሚያውን ትክክለኝነት ለማስረዳት ከምንጠቀምበት ዘዴ አንጻር ማስረጃዎችና በሶስት ዋና ዋና ዘርፎች ከፋፍለን መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡እነኚህም የምስክርነት ማስረጃ፣ የሰነድ ማስረጃ እና ገላጭ ማስረጃ ናቸው፡፡ ሀ.የምስክርነት ማስረጃ (testimonial evidence) ይህ አይነቱ ማስረጃ ሰዎች የአንድን ፍሬ ነገር መኖር ወይም አለመኖር ወይም የአንድን ድርጊት መፈጸም እና አለመፈጸም ወይም የአንድን ጉዳይ ድምዳሜ ትክክለኝነት በስሜት ህዋሳታቸው በመጠቀም የተረዱትን ነገር በአካል ወንጀልን ለሚመረምር አካል ወይም ለፍርድ ቤት በአካል በመቅረብ በንግግር የሚገልጹበት መንገድ ነው፡፡ በስሜት ህዋሳታቸው ስንል በአይናቸው የተመለከቱትን፣ በጆሯቸው የሰሙትን፣ በምላሳቸው የቀመሱትን፣ በአፍንጫቸው ያሸተቱትን፣ በቆዳቸው የነኩትን እና ስሜት የሰጣቸውን ነገር ማለት ነው፡፡ ከላይ እንደጠቀስነው የምስክርነት ማስረጃ በአካል በመቅረብ በንግግር ሊደረግ የሚገባ ቢሆንም ምስክሩ መናገር የተሳነው ወይም የማይችል ከሆነ ከላይ በጠቀስነው ሁኔታ ያወቀውን መረጃ በምልክት ሊገልጽ እና ገለጻው የምልክት ቋንቋን በሚያውቅ ሰው ለፍርድ ቤቱ በንግግር ሊተረጎም ይችላል፡፡ምስክሩ ለፍርድ ቤቱ የሚገልጸውን ጉዳይ በቀጥታ ወይም ቀጥተኛ ባልሆነ መንገድ ሊያስረዳ ይችላል(በቀጣዩ ክፍል ይብራል)፡፡ለምሳሌ በ ንብረትነቱ የ ለ የሆነውን ተንቀሳቃሽ ስልክ ከ ለ ኪስ ውስጥ ሲወስድ(አውጥቶ ሲወስድ) ተመልክቻለው ቢል ወይም ተ ለ የተባለውን ሰው እገድልሃው ብሎ ሲዝትበት ሰምቻለው ሲል ቃሉን ቢሰጥ ወይም ሟች አስክሬኑ በተገኘበት ክፍል አከባቢ ከሁለት ቀናት ቀደም ብሎ ጀምሮ የሞተ እንስሳ ጠረን የሸተተው መሆኑን ሊገልጽ ይችላል ይህ ግለሰቡ በቀጥታ ያገኘው መረጃ ነው፡፡ በበሌላ በኩል ፍሬ ነገሩን እራሱ በቀጥታ ሰምቶት ወይም ተመልክቶት ሳይሆን ከሌላ ሰው ሰምቶ መሆኑን ወይም ድርጊቱ ከመፈጸሙም በፊት ሆነ በኋላ ከፍሬ ነገሩ ጋር ተያያዥነት ስላለው አንድ ጉዳይ በመግለጽ ሊያስረዳ ይችላል፡፡ለምሳሌ ሟች ነብሱ ከስጋው ከመላቀቋ በፊት ስደርስ ሸ ነው የወጋኝ ብሎ እያቃተተ ሲናገር ሰምቻለው ቢል ወይም ለ ከሞተበት ጊዜ ከድቂቃዎች ቀደም ብሎ የደም እንጥብጣቢ ያለበት ሸሚዝ የለበሰ ሰው በአጠገቤ እየሮጠ አልፏል ቢል ይህ የምስክርነት ማስረጃ አካባቢያዊ ማስረጃ ነው፡፡ ለ.የሰነድ ማስረጃ(document evidence) የሰነድ ማስረጃ ከቃሉም እንደምንረዳው በላዩ ላይ ማንኛውም አይነት ጽሁፍ፣ምልክት፣ ስዕል ያለበት ወረቀት በአጠቃላይ በጽሁፍ የተገለጹ ማናቸውም ማስረጃዎች ወይም ድምጽ እና/ወይም  ምስል የተቀረጸበት ነገር ነው፡፡ለምሳሌ  በጽሁፍ የተደረጉ ውሎች፣ የህክምና እና ምርመራ ውጤቶች፣ በጽሁፍ የቀረቡ የፎረንሲክ ምርመራ ውጤቶች፣ ስዕሎች፣ ቻርቶች፣ የኦዲት ሪፖርቶች፣ የቴፕ እና የቪዲዮ ቅጂዎች፣ ሀሰተኛ የምስክር ወረቀቶች እና የመሳሰለት የሰነድ ማስረጃ መገለጫዎች ናቸው፡፡በመሆኑም እነኚ ማስረጃዎች የወንጀሉን ፍሬ ነገር ለማስዳት ይችላሉ፡፡ ወንጀሉ የተፈጸመው ሰነዶቹን በማቅረብ ሲሆን(ለምሳሌ-ሀሰተኛ የአሽከርካሪነት ብቃት ማረጋገጫ)፣ ድርጊቱን ሲፈጽም በካሜራ እይታ ውስጥ ሆኖ የነበረ እንደሆነ፣ ድርጊቱ ከተፈጸመ በኋላም በድርጊቱ ምክንያት የደረሰን የጉዳት መጠን እና አይነት(ለምሳሌ-አካል ጉዳት) ለመለየት እንዲሁም  ጉዳቱ ሊደርስ የቻለበትን ምክንያት(ለምሳሌ- እሳት ቃጠሎ) ሊያስረዳ የሚችል የፎረንሲክ ምርመራ የጽሁፍ መግለጫ ሁሉ የሰነድ ማስረጃዎች ናቸው፡፡ ሐ.ገላጭ ማስረጃ  (demonstrative evidence) እነኚ ማስረጃዎች በችሎት ክርክር ወቅት ከሳሽ እና ተከሳሽ ፍርድ ቤት ተመልክቶ  ግምት እንዲወስድበት  የሚያቀርቧቸው ማስረጃዎች ናቸው፡፡ተከሳሹ የወንጀል ድርጊቱን ለመፈጸም የተጠቀመበት መሳርያ፣ በፈጸመው ወንጀል ምክንያት በእጁ ወይም በሶስተኛ ወገን እጅ የተገኙ ንብረቶች በዚህ የማስረጃ አይነት ስር የሚወድቁ ናቸው፡፡ በመሆኑም እነኚ ማስረጃዎች ፍርድ ቤት በሚቀርቡ ጊዜ ፍርድ ቤቱ በትክክልም በክሱ ላይ የተጠቀሰውን ወይም በክርክሩ የተያዘውን ጭብጥ ወይም ሊያዝ የሚገባውን መደምደሚያ ትክክለኛነት ለማረጋገጥ ይረዳዋል፡፡ለአብነትም የቀረበው ገላጭ ማስረጃ እውነትም  ድርጊቱን ለመፈጸም የሚያስችል ነው ወይስ አይደለም  ወይም በተከሳሹ ተወሰደ የተባለው እቃ በሸክም ከቦታ ወደ ቦታ ሊጓጓዝ ይችላል ወይስ አይችልም የሚለውን ጉዳይ ለመለየት ጉልህ ሚናን ያበረክታል፡፡ ሌላኛው ማስረጃው ሊያስረዳው ከታለመለት አላማ አንጻር ቀጥተኛ እና ቀጥተኛ ያልሆነ ወይም አካባቢያዊ ማስረጃ(circumstancial evidense) በሚል በሁለት ከፍለን መመልከትም እንችላለን ቀጥተኛ  በሆነ ማስረጃ እና ቀጥተኛ ባልሆነ ማስረጃ መካከል ያለውን መሰረታዊ ልዩነት ከላይ በምስክርነት ማስረጃ ስር ተመልክተናል በተጨማሪ ግን የሰነድ ማስረጃዎችም ቀጥተኛ ወይም ቀጥተኛ ያልሆኑ በሚል ከፍለን ልንመለከታቸው እንችላለን፡፡ለምሳሌ በሰዎች መካከል ስላለ ግዴታ የሚያወራ አንድ ሰነድ በአስረጀነት ቢቀርብ ይህ ማስረጃ ቀጥተኛ የሰነድ ማስረጃ ልንለው እንችላለን፡፡ ይሁንና ስለዚሁ ሰነድ በተጨባጭ የሚያወራ ሌላ ሰነድ ቢቀርብ ይህ ማስረጃ ቀጥተኛ ሊሆን አይችልም፡፡ለምሳሌ ተዋዋይ ወገኖች በገቡት ግዴታ መሰረት ገዢ ወይም ውል ተቀባይ የመጀመርያውን ክፍያ 1000 ብር በቼክ ፈጽሟል የሚል ሀረግ ቢኖር እና ቼኩ ለክፍያ በቀረበ ጊዜ በቂ ሂሳብ ያልነበረ እንደሆነ በቂ ስንቅ ሳይኖረው ባወጣው ሰው ላይ ቼኩ ቀጥተኛ የሰነድ ማስረጃ ሲሆን ውሉ ደግሞ በቼኩ ፍሬ ነገር ላይ ቀጥተኛ ያልሆነ ማስረጃ ነው፡፡ 4.የማስረጃ ተገቢነት መስፈርቶች(የማስረጃ መርሆዎች) ማስረጃ በህግ ፊት ተቀባይነት እንዲኖረው ሶስት ዋናዋና ነጥቦችን  ማሟላትአለበት፡፡ እነኚህም ነጥቦች፡- … Continue reading =======በወንጀል ጉዳይ የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ እና አቀራረብ=========
  • Collection and presentation of evidence in criminal cases
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  • 1954 It is a comparison of our legal provisions with the Criminal Procedure Code and the proposed Code of Criminal Procedure.
    1954 It is a comparison of our legal provisions with the Criminal Procedure Code and the proposed Code of Criminal Procedure. Under our current Criminal Procedure Code Rule 63, a person loses his right to bail if he has been charged with a crime punishable by more than 15 years and the injured person is expected to die or die. Although there is no consensus among legal experts … Continue reading 1954 It is a comparison of our legal provisions with the Criminal Procedure Code and the proposed Code of Criminal Procedure.
  • Which Dictator Killed The Most People?
    Which Dictator Killed The Most People? They say that it takes compassion for humanity, love for country and a strong pursuit of justice and mercy, to become a strong and respected leader of the masses. However, every once in a while, there are politicians or generals who decide to do things their own way. These cold-blooded dictators do not care for the value of life as much as … Continue reading Which Dictator Killed The Most People?
  • RULE OF LAW
    ======== Rule of Law ========== What is the principle of the rule of law, based on the knowledge and experience of many scholars? He presented a number of theoretical analyzes regarding its content and benefits. In our country, fathers and mothers express the concept of the rule of law in one way or another, based on the truth and experience of their hearts. “If she goes to court, … Continue reading RULE OF LAW
  • HOW JUDGES AND JUSTICES ARE CHOSEN
    How Judges and Justices Are Chosen The Senate Judiciary Committee reviews the president’s nominees to the federal bench before they are confirmed on the Senate floor. The committee holds its meetings in rooms such as this one, Committee Room 226 in the Senate Dirksen Office Building. Legendary Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes once said that a Supreme Court Justice should be a “combination of Justinian, Jesus Christ, and John … Continue reading HOW JUDGES AND JUSTICES ARE CHOSEN
  • FEDERALISM
    3. Federalism Before the Constitution was written, each state had its own currency. This four pound note from Philadelphia reads, “To Counterfeit is Death.” Did you ever wonder why you don’t need a passport to go from New York to California, but if you were to move from one state to another, you would need a new driver’s license? Or why you can use the same currency in … Continue reading FEDERALISM
  • TYPES OF GOVERNMENT
    “Off with his head!” “Off with his head!”This is a favorite story line to show how cruel a king (or a sultan or emperor) can be. The rules in this type of government are pretty clear. Whatever the ruler says, goes. Of course, many people have had different ideas about how the ruler should govern, and those beliefs support totally different types of government. The rules shape the … Continue reading TYPES OF GOVERNMENT
  • //Guarantees Criminal Case//
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  • The letter Abiy’s puppet(AG) wrote to block medical treatment of Bekele Gerba was brought to court today. Attorney General tried to hide what was already delivered to court. He tried to intimidate prison officials to hide the letter but the brave officers delivered it to court.
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  • Courtroom
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  • A young rickshaw operator in Jigjiga returns a cash of Birr 300,000 ($7,436) left in the rickshaw to the lucky owner. A mother was the owner of the money, she wanted to use the money to seek medical help for herself and a sick son (she sold some of her livestock to get the cash)
  • People gather to mourn the victims of a massacre allegedly perpetrated by Eritrean Soldiers in the village of Dengolat, North of Mekele, the capital of Tigray.
  • Abyssinia ft. Lula Man – Neylign | ነይልኝ – New Ethiopian Music …
  • Essential Qualities of a Good Journalist
    Essential Qualities of a Good JournalistA Way with Words. … Thorough Knowledge. … Investigative Skills. … Effective Communication Skills. … Professionalism and Confidence. … Persistence and Discipline. … Ethics are Important Too. AWLO Media journalist Bekalu Alamiro, as far as I know, is a very loving, impartial and impartial journalist who fulfills these journalistic ethics. I would also like to say with all my heart that it is … Continue reading Essential Qualities of a Good Journalist
  • Why are you presenting to the people what the Ethiopian Defense Forces did to the people of Tigray? Why do you expose the crimes of the Defense Forces? Storm Media also responded to the decision by the Ethiopian Broadcasting Authority.Why are you presenting to the people what the Ethiopian Defense Forces did to the people of Tigray? Why do you expose the crimes of the Defense Forces? Storm Media also responded to the decision by the Ethiopian Broadcasting Authority.
  • Warning – graphic footage. Reports of 160 boys massacred in revenge killings by pro Government forces forced out of Samre in Tigray Ethiopia ⁦
  • The decision of the Supreme Court of Appeal of Jawar Mohammad Medical
  • We should not be self-centered. የራሳችንን ጥቅም ብቻ የምናሳድድ ሰዎች መሆን የለብንም።
    የራሳችንን ጥቅም ብቻ የምናሳድድ ሰዎች መሆን የለብንም። አንዳንዶች ተራ የባሕርይ ችግር አድርገው የሚመለከቷቸው እንደ ቅናት፣ በቁጣ መገንፈል፣ የከረረ ጭቅጭቅና ምቀኝነት የመሳሰሉ ባሕርያትም ከሥጋ ሥራዎች የሚፈረጁ ናቸው። በዓለም ላይ ባሉ በብዙዎች ዘንድ የሚንጸባረቀው አስተሳሰብ ሥጋዊ ፍላጎትን በማርካት ላይ ያተኮረ ነው። ለሌሎች ደኅንነት በማሰብ ረሃብን በሽታንና የፍትሕ መጓደልን ለማስወገድ ሲሉ የራሳቸውን ጥቅም መሥዋዕት በማድረግ ስለሚለፉ ሰዎችስ ምን ማለት ይቻላል?  ፍጽምና የጎደላቸው የሰው ልጆች ከራስ ወዳድነት ነፃ የሆነ ፍቅር የማሳየት ችሎታ … Continue reading We should not be self-centered. የራሳችንን ጥቅም ብቻ የምናሳድድ ሰዎች መሆን የለብንም።
  • በፈጣሪና በሰይጣን ላይ የቀረቡ ክሶች።
    Source: በፈጣሪና በሰይጣን ላይ የቀረቡ ክሶች።
  • የዕቃ ፍተሻ እና ቅድሚያ የጉምሩክ ሥነ-ሥርዓት የሚፈጸምበትን ዕቃ ለመወሰን የወጣ መመሪያ ቁጥር159- 2011
  • የዕቃ ፍተሻ እና ቅድሚያ የጉምሩክ ሥነ-ሥርዓት የሚፈጸምበትን ዕቃ ለመወሰን የወጣ መመሪያ ቁጥር159- 2011
  • የጉምሩክ ቀረጥና ታክስ ማስከፈያ ዋጋ አተማመን መመሪያ ቁጥር 158/2011
  • Special envoy for the Horn of Africa to address political instability and conflict in the East African region, including a brewing civil war and humanitarian crisis in northern Ethiopia, current and former officials familiar with the matter told Foreign Policy.
    Special envoy for the Horn of Africa to address political instability and conflict in the East African region, including a brewing civil war and humanitarian crisis in northern Ethiopia, current and former officials familiar with the matter told Foreign Policy. The new special envoy post could fill a diplomatic leadership gap in the administration’s foreign-policy ranks as it works to install other senior officials in the State Department, … Continue reading Special envoy for the Horn of Africa to address political instability and conflict in the East African region, including a brewing civil war and humanitarian crisis in northern Ethiopia, current and former officials familiar with the matter told Foreign Policy.
  • Authentic leadership theory emphasizes that leaders are free to adopt or develop their own leadership style
    Authentic leadership theory emphasizes that leaders are free to adopt or develop their own leadership style so long as that style is consistent with their own character and values. Here are the four components of authentic leadership. Which do you possess? 1. Self-Awareness (“Know Thyself”) 2. Relational Transparency (“Be Genuine”) 3. Balanced Processing (“Be Fair-Minded”) 4. Internalized Moral Perspective (“Do the Right Thing”). Ten Authentic Leadership Characteristics: Self-awareness, … Continue reading Authentic leadership theory emphasizes that leaders are free to adopt or develop their own leadership style
  • AMMEE: Dr. Ililliin hidhamte!
    Originally posted on dhalootaqubee media:
    AMMEE: Dr. Ililliin hidhamte. Yeroo ammaa hospitaala waraanaatti hidhamtee jirti. Dr. Ilillii hidhanii obbo Baqqalaa fudhatan.
  • Oromo (pictured with his Mom) says #FreeMyDad!
    Oromo (pictured with his Mom) says #FreeMyDad! FreeJawarMohammed FreeAllOromoPoliticalPrisoners FreeAllPoliticalPrisoners #DontLetThemSufferMore Oromo #Oromia #Ethiopia Oromo (pictured with his Mom) says #FreeMyDad!
  • Dr. Awol Kassim Allo: The cruelty of this government is boundless!
    Very alarming reports that Ethiopian authorities have taken Bekele Gerba, who had been on a hunger strike for the last three weeks, to government hospital against his will and in violation of a court order. There are also reports that the authorities arrested and detained private doctors of the Oromo political leaders on hunger strike […] Dr. Awol Kassim Allo: The cruelty of this government is boundless!
  • “ፃንሒት ምስ ኣይተ ጌታቸው ረዳ 16-2021 ንህዝብና ድምፂ ንኹኖ
  • Reading List – February 2021
    Despite my deep love of political history, I’ve not read any political treatises! Woe, woe is me! This month is intended to fix that gap in my knowledge. As you may also know, the Sue Vincent Rodeo Classic is starting this month! Be prepared at ANY MOMENT for a Sue Vincent book review! Atlas Shrugged […] Reading List – February 2021
  • የገቢዎችና ጉምሩክ ባለስልጣን የኤክሳይዝ ታክስ አዋጅ ቁጥር 1186/2012.pdf
  • The genocidal campaign against the civil society of the people of Tigray has continued with the war and the plundering of the Tigreans’ property and the massacre of the Tigrayans. The oppression of the people and the rape of women, mothers in Tigray and so on. It is still happening. This is the angle of injustice in Tigray.
  • Gebre Gebretsadik won the victory of Seyoum Mesfin in the campaign. በዘመቻ ስዩም መስፍን የተገኘውን ድል ገብረ ገብረጻድቅ ከግንባር።
  • The only thing I am proud of is the rare Ethiopian realist Dr.Tedros Adihano
  • The witness was not very pleased with the judge’s decision. And the judge twisted the question a little bit, giving the judge a ‘twist’. I appeal! Appeal! Still appeal! _😂😂😂
  • ሃይማኖት እንደ ጦርነትና ሽብርተኝነት ባሉት ድርጊቶች መካፈሉ እንዲሁም በልጆች ላይ የሚደርሰውን ጥቃት በቸልታ መመልከቱ ጸሎተኛ የሆኑ ሰዎችም እንኳ “በአምላክ አላምንም” እንዲሉ አድርጓቸዋል።
  • በጋራ ገቢዎች ላይ ማብራሪያ ስለመስጠት ።Explaining common income.
    በጋራ ገቢዎች ላይ ማብራሪያ ስለመስጠት ።“””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””””የጋራ ገቢዎችን በተመለከተ ከምንሰጠው መረጃ በመነሳት የተለያዩ አስተያይቶች ሲሰጡ ተመልክተናል ። አንዳንዶቹ ደግሞ ከአስተያይት ተቆጥበው የፊዴሬሽን ም/ቤት የወሰነው የሚባለው የማከፋፈያ ቀመሩ ምንድን ነው የሚል ጥያቄ ያነሳሉ ። በመሆኑም የጋራ ገቢዎች የሚባሉት ምንድን ናቸው ? ማከፋፈያ ቀመሩ ምንድን ነው ? የሚሉትን መልስ መስጠትና ለህዝባችን ግልፅ ማድረግ ሃላፊነትና ግዴታችን በመሆኑ እንደሚከተለው ቀርቧል ። ጨርሰው አንብበው ይረዱ ለሌሎችም ያስረዱ ። በቀጣይ መታየት ያለበት ገንቢ አስተያየትም ካለ … Continue reading በጋራ ገቢዎች ላይ ማብራሪያ ስለመስጠት ።Explaining common income.
  • የፌዴራል ፍርድ ቤቶች ይህን የማይተካ ከሚናቸውን በአግባቡ መወጣት እንዲችሉ የኢ.ፌ.ዲሪ ሕገ መንግስትም በምዕራፍ ዘጠኝ አንቀጽ 78 እስከ 81 ባሉት ድንጋጌዎችም ሆነ ሕገመንግስቱን ተከትሎ የወጣው የፌዴራል ፍርድ ቤቶች ማቋቋሚያ አዋጅ ቁጥር 25 በ 1988 ባወጣው መሰረት ፍርድ ቤቶች የዳኝነት ስልጣን የተሰጣቸው መሆኑን ደንግገዋል
    የዜጎችን መብትና ጥቅም አስከብሮ ዘላቂ የአገር ሠላምና ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሥርዓትን በማጠናር ከኢኮኖሚያዊና ማህበራዊ ዕድገትን ለማፋጠን ፍ/ቤቶች ከፍተኛ ድርሻ ያላቸው መሆኑ ይታወቃል፡፡የፌዴራል ፍርድ ቤቶች ይህን የማይተካ ከሚናቸውን በአግባቡ መወጣት እንዲችሉ የኢ.ፌ.ዲሪ ሕገ መንግስትም በምዕራፍ ዘጠኝ አንቀጽ 78 እስከ 81 ባሉት ድንጋጌዎችም ሆነ ሕገመንግስቱን ተከትሎ የወጣው የፌዴራል ፍርድ ቤቶች ማቋቋሚያ አዋጅ ቁጥር 25 በ 1988 ባወጣው መሰረት ፍርድ ቤቶች የዳኝነት ስልጣን የተሰጣቸው መሆኑን ደንግገዋል፡፡የፌዴራል ፍርድ ቤቶች ማቋቋሚያ አዋጅ ቁጥር 25 በ … Continue reading የፌዴራል ፍርድ ቤቶች ይህን የማይተካ ከሚናቸውን በአግባቡ መወጣት እንዲችሉ የኢ.ፌ.ዲሪ ሕገ መንግስትም በምዕራፍ ዘጠኝ አንቀጽ 78 እስከ 81 ባሉት ድንጋጌዎችም ሆነ ሕገመንግስቱን ተከትሎ የወጣው የፌዴራል ፍርድ ቤቶች ማቋቋሚያ አዋጅ ቁጥር 25 በ 1988 ባወጣው መሰረት ፍርድ ቤቶች የዳኝነት ስልጣን የተሰጣቸው መሆኑን ደንግገዋል
  • Abiy Ahmed’s death sentence for Lidetu Ayalew
  • The smear campaign against our organization and its leaders is a futile attempt to prevent the face of Amhara politics! – Tahir Mohamed
    Ethio News – ኢትዮ ኒውስ በድርጅታችንና አመራሮቹ ላይ የሚደረገው የስም ማጠልሸት ዘመቻ የአማራ ፖለቲካ ፊት እንዳይመጣ የሚደረግ ከንቱ ሙከራ ነው! – ጣሂር ሞሃመድ
  • Watch “ይድረስ ለጀነራል ብርሃኑ 02-06-2021 ንህዝብና ድምፂ ንኹኖ https://gf.me/u/y7k68p”” on YouTube
  • Rakkoon Mana Marii Dhimmoota Islaamummaa Itoophiyaa Keessa Jiru Maal?
    Mul’anni Dhaabbata waaraa ijaaruu namoota aangoo irra jiraniin gufateera Ustaaz Ahmaddin Jabal irraa Rakkoolee bakka hundaa Muslimoota mudatuufi kan akka biyyaatti uumamuuf furmaata barbaacha walii isaaniitii, ummataafi mootummaa wajjin ni mari’atu jettee osoo eegduu “akkamiin waa’ee filannoo kana ummata dagachiifnee filannoon maleetti hogganaa majlisaa taanee bakkicha irra turra?” Jechuu irraa ka’uudhaan ummata qoodaafi rakkoo uumaa […] Rakkoon Mana Marii Dhimmoota Islaamummaa Itoophiyaa Keessa Jiru Maal?
  • Manni marii olaanaa Dhimmoota Islaamummaa Magaalaa Jimmaa yaa’ii Idilee 2ffaa geggeesse
    Manni marii olaanaa Dhimmoota Islaamummaa Magaalaa Jimmaa bakka keessummoonni adda addaa argamanitti yaa’ii Idilee 2ffaa geggeessaa ture milkiin xumure. Yaa’iin kun ganama Sabtii kaleessaa Qur’aanaa fi du’aa’ii ulamootaatiin eega jalqabamee booda, dura ta’aan Majlisa Magaalaa Jimmaa Sheikh Muhammadamiin Tamaam haasaya baniinsaafi keessummoota yaa’icha irratti argaman anaa dhufu jechuun simatanii jiru. Yaa’ii kana irrattii gaabsni raawwii […] Manni marii olaanaa Dhimmoota Islaamummaa Magaalaa Jimmaa yaa’ii Idilee 2ffaa geggeesse
  • ጉዳዩ:- የኢትዮጵያን ኅልውና አደጋ ላይ የጣሉት ጠቅላይ ሚኒስቴር አብይ አህመድ ስልጣናቸዉን ይልቀቁ!!
    Gudii FAANA BUUTOTA #GOOBANAA ጉዳዩ:- የኢትዮጵያን ኅልውና አደጋ ላይ የጣሉት ጠቅላይ ሚኒስቴር አብይ አህመድ ስልጣናቸዉን ይልቀቁ!! ጥር 19 ቀን 2013 ዓ.ም ➢ ለኢፌድሪ ጠቅላይ ሚኒስቴር ጽ/ቤት – አዲስ አበባ ➢ ለኢፌዴሪ የውጭ ጉዳይ ሚኒስቴር – አዲስ አበባ ➢ለምርጫ ቦርድ (አዲስ አበባ ➢ለፍትህ ሚኒስቴር (አዲስ አበባ) ➢በኢፌዴሪ ፓርላማ ለህዝብ ተወካዮች (አዲስ አበባ) ➢ በዋሽንግተን ዲሲ የኢትዮጵያ ኤምባሲ-ዋሽንግተን ዲሲ ➢ ለሕብር ሬዲዮን ጣቢያ-ሰሜን […] ጉዳዩ:- የኢትዮጵያን ኅልውና አደጋ ላይ የጣሉት … Continue reading ጉዳዩ:- የኢትዮጵያን ኅልውና አደጋ ላይ የጣሉት ጠቅላይ ሚኒስቴር አብይ አህመድ ስልጣናቸዉን ይልቀቁ!!
  • Ethiopia re-enters the abyss of war – Ethiopia Insight
    2021 by Kjetil Tronvoll  Last time Ethiopia descended into conflict, it took 17 years to emerge. Will Ethiopia’s new leaders learn from history? The Ethiopian federal government’s “law enforcement operation” in Tigray aimed to capture the rebellious rulers in the northern regional state. Thus far, however, the core leadership is at large, and the campaign has further exposed the country’s political fragility, pushing it into the abyss of … Continue reading Ethiopia re-enters the abyss of war – Ethiopia Insight

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