Collection and presentation of evidence in criminal cases


Collection and presentation of evidence in criminal cases

=======. Education for Consciousness. =========

BY: Mr. S.M  JUDGE   /FED/F/I/COURT of ETHIOPIA

The main purpose of criminal law is to keep the public safe. Thus, in the course of their daily lives, people have a constitutional right to respect and refrain from violating the rights of others. However, if they violate this obligation, they may violate the rights of others, including criminal, civil, and administrative law and human rights.

 Administrative law and human rights enforcement

It has been repeatedly stated that as the power of the state expands, it is against the rights and freedoms of citizens. Administrative law recognizes the importance of authority. Effective governance and efficient service delivery are needed, not just tyranny. However, power that deviates from the law and the constitution weighs the benefits. Arbitrary actions, such as ‘I can do whatever I want, I can do whatever I want!’, Undermine the basic right to live, move freely, to speak, to express one’s opinion, and to own property.

The role of administrative law in protecting human rights clearly illustrates the connection between the two. In order to better understand the positive impact of the law on the protection and implementation of human rights, it is appropriate to analyze the government’s commitment to human rights. These roles are to protect respect and enforcement.

First, the role of government in respecting rights restricts interference from any part of the government when citizens exercise their rights freely. Especially in the so-called basics of living, writing, speaking; To follow the religion of your choice; The rights and freedoms of freedom of movement and property are guaranteed in practice when the government raises its hand. These rights are determined by the government, particularly by the executive and its subordinate administration; Order: They may be endangered by rules and regulations. As the Constitution is the supreme law, not all laws, decisions and practices that contradict this will be enforced. Such a question of constitutionality does not fall into the category of administrative law. However, the question of what constitutes a constitution is more likely to be covered by the administrative law framework.

If a directive issued by a governing body violates the human rights of citizens beyond the power of attorney given by the legislature, it is a matter of constitutionality, but it is a matter of legality that must be addressed by the administrative law. To better understand the difference, let’s look at the following instructions from the former Ministry of Revenue and the current Revenue and Customs Authority.

No customs officer can strike or strike.

The right to peaceful assembly is guaranteed by the FDRE Constitution. Article 30, sub-paragraph 1, which gives him the right, reads as follows:

Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

When a directive is issued by the executive, there must be a clear delegate from the legislature. The directive is beyond the scope of the power of attorney (Ulta vires). It is therefore null and void before the law. When the Ministry of Revenue issued this directive, the proclamation to establish the source of power and the decision of the Customs Authority. 368/1995 refers to Article 8 (2) (c). This legal provision reads as follows.

The Ministry of Police, assigned by the Federal Police Commission to enforce customs law, shall operate in accordance with the directives issued by the Federal Police Proclamation. Manages. When disaster strikes, he dismisses it.

This article does not authorize the Ministry of Revenue to prohibit customs officers from conducting peaceful demonstrations. This directive, issued without the explicit authorization of the House of Representatives, is neither valid nor enforceable. Administrative law enforces the government’s obligation to respect human rights by enforcing such directives in various ways to prevent the violation of citizens’ rights and freedoms.

Government enforcement responsibilities are often social; It is directly related to economic and cultural rights. It is not enough for the government not to interfere in the rights of citizens or to raise its hand. If he does not provide basic services to the citizen, such as health, electricity, water, roads, etc., he will not be free.

The relationship between administrative law and human rights can also be examined in terms of the government’s obligation to enforce it. In this regard, the government must strengthen its legal and institutional control mechanisms to ensure that human rights are not violated, and that it has a system in place to ensure immediate justice for victims of human rights abuses. In short, in order for human rights to be respected, the government needs to formulate, establish, and develop a well-developed administrative law and administrative system.

We can look at our various laws to see if action should be taken.

Depending on the nature of the case, these actions may be taken to court or to administrative or executive bodies.

The provisions of Article 79 (1) of the Constitution indicate that the courts have the power to adjudicate on criminal charges.

Courts, therefore, can only accept and prosecute cases when there is sufficient evidence to prove the case. In criminal cases, there are major issues that must be addressed before the courts can handle the case. These are criminal investigations and prosecutions.

Therefore, if the police are to appear in court in order to educate the perpetrator and the perpetrators of such an act by prosecuting a person suspected of committing an act in a joint investigation with the prosecutor, the defendant must carefully gather evidence and organize an investigation.

A significant number of members of the public have been involved in a number of cases, ranging from a lack of awareness and a lack of compliance with the law to a cover-up.

However, since investigations cannot be effective without the participation and cooperation of the public, the public must be able to support the evidence-gathering system in the eyes of the government, from exposing illegal activities to providing information and evidence to the investigator.

In this article, we will try to explore the basics of how police collect and present evidence, the nature and importance of evidence, the acceptance of evidence, the role of the public, and the concept of evidence.

1. The nature of criminal evidence

Although our laws contain a number of provisions regarding evidence, we do not consider it to be a definitive definition of evidence. Therefore, it is important to look at the interpretation given by various legal experts to understand the nature of evidence.

Richard May, a lawyer, is the source of evidence that can be used to prove or disprove any facts or conclusions. 

They say it is information.

Evidence can, on the other hand, be interpreted as evidence to convince the judging panel of the existence of a substance or a matter of fact.

Evidence from these interpretations is that when a person violates the law by failing to do something, or when it is obligatory to do so, he or she will be able to prove to the court that the action was true, and the defendant will prove to the court that he or she did not do so. Evidence is important to prove in court whether a person accused of theft has actually committed the act or not. Therefore, it is necessary to present a variety of evidence to prove that the act was committed. The defendant also has the right to present and present evidence to prove his or her innocence. Although we will look at the subject in more detail, the testimony of the person who witnessed the act, the consequences of the crime (telephone, money, clothing, etc.).

These facts are varied according to their nature, and if the evidence is human, it can be presented by presenting the witness, presenting the document if the evidence is present, and if it is an exhibit, it can be used to explain the existence of the facts and prove the conclusion.

The evidence given by the witnesses, the evidence or understanding taken from the document or object, can be used to identify the evidence that the witness, the document and the object are used to present in court.

On the other hand, in the light of the above, the difference between information and evidence must be clearly identified. Most sections of society do not fully recognize the difference between the two phrases. Evidence is all information, but not all information can be evidence. Evidence is human knowledge that comes from research, reading, relationships, past facts or experience, and experience. All of this knowledge can be information, not evidence. ፡ Searching

We have already seen the nature of evidence. Therefore, the role of evidence collection is crucial to enable the information to be available as evidence and to be used for the above purposes. For example, I have heard Lemma send people illegally to Arab countries in the past. If we look at Mr. Manasseh’s statement that he is listening, he did not directly or indirectly see Mr. Lemma committing the act, but he did express his knowledge from various sources. Therefore, the behavior of the individual before committing the crime cannot be evidence of a crime. ፡ Searching If the information from the individual is enriched during the investigation, it can be used as evidence because the police will use this information to gather evidence that the alleged perpetrator is the perpetrator.

Evidence is information that we use to verify the facts of a crime, the identity of the perpetrator, the benefits and harms of the crime, and so on.

2. The importance of evidence

Any plaintiff must be persuaded by a court of law to give a fair verdict and be found guilty. The defendant must present evidence and convince the court to dismiss the case and acquit him / her free of charge. He can provide evidence to support the objection if he has a preliminary objection. He can also state the reasons for the mitigation of sentences. The final decision of the courts is based on the assumptions of the parties. Therefore, it is sufficient to convince the court before prosecuting. Gathering relevant evidence is appropriate and important. In particular, as a prosecutor in a criminal case, he or she must ensure that sufficient evidence is available before prosecuting and sending him or her to court. If the evidence is presented in court in this way, There is a good chance that there will be facts. From this we understand that evidence plays an irreplaceable role in the prosecution’s case and in the courts’ decision-making process.

It is not enough to commit any crime alone. Instead, there must be sufficient evidence that is directly or indirectly related to the act, legally available and substantiated to explain the facts of the case. In this case, the perpetrators must be held accountable. Evidence plays a key role in ensuring that those who should be held accountable for their actions are safe.

3. Type of evidence

Evidence gathered in criminal cases can be divided into two main categories in terms of the method we use to explain the facts and the purpose for which the evidence is presented.

Evidence can be divided into three main categories: evidence, documentary evidence, and descriptive evidence in terms of the method we use to explain the facts or conclusions of the conclusion.

A. Testonial evidence

This type of evidence is a way for people to express their understanding of the existence or non-existence of an object or the act or action of an action or the accuracy of a conclusion by using their senses to present a case to a body investigating a crime or to a court of law. By their senses, they mean what they see with their eyes, hear with their ears, taste with their tongues, smell with their noses, touch with their skin, and feel.

If the witness is unable or unwilling to speak in person, as described above, he or she may sign the information he or she knows in the manner described above and the statement may be interpreted orally by the person who knows the sign language. For example, I saw Bill take his mobile phone out of his pocket, and I heard him threaten to kill a man named B, or he smelled a dead animal two days earlier in the room where the body was found. This may be due to the fact that the person is directly involved. On the other hand, he may not have heard or seen the subject himself, but he may have heard about it from someone else or related to the subject before and after the act. For example, I heard him say that he was stabbed when he died before his soul was released from his body. A few minutes earlier, a man in a bloody shirt was running past me.

B. Document evidence

As we can see from the wording of the document, any  Types of text, markings, drawings are generally any written or audio and / or photographic documentation. Copies, forged certificates, and the like are documents of evidence.

The crime was committed by presenting the documents (for example, a false driver’s license), whether he was in camera view at the time of the incident, to identify the extent and type of damage (for example, disability) after the incident, and the cause of the injury (eg fire). ) A written statement that can be explained by forensic examination is all documentary evidence.

C. Demonstrative evidence

These pieces of evidence are the evidence that the plaintiff and the defendant must consider in court during the hearing. The equipment used by the defendant to commit the crime, the property of the perpetrator or third party, falls under this type of evidence.

Thus, when the evidence is presented in court, it will help the court to verify the facts of the case or the conclusion of the case. For example, whether the evidence is true or not, or whether the object taken by the defendant may be transported. It plays an important role in identifying the issue.

The other piece of evidence can be divided into two categories: circumstancial evidense. We have seen the basic difference between direct evidence and indirect evidence under the evidence above, but we can also divide the documentary evidence into indirect or indirect evidence. For example, if a document about a duty between people is presented as evidence, we can call this evidence a direct document.

However, this document may not be direct if any other document is presented that actually deals with this document. For example, if there is a statement that the buyer or recipient made the first payment of 1000 birr in accordance with the obligations entered into by the parties and the check was not sufficient account at the time of payment. It is a direct document, and the contract is an indirect proof of the substance of the check.

4. Evidence Requirements (Evidence Principles)

Evidence must meet three main points in order for it to be valid before the law. These points:

A. Relevance

Any evidence presented to prove a point must be directly or indirectly related to the subject matter or the subject matter to which it is intended to be presented.

B. Reliable

Anyone who is charged with a crime can be prosecuted only if there is sufficient evidence. These evidence must be credible in addition to their ability to present sufficient evidence. Evidence cannot be substantiated by any sane person. Witnesses who have witnessed the case provide credible evidence. For example, in the case of a 12-year-old boy who testified that he stole a motorcycle, the credentials of this witness should be examined. We can see that he is the one who can do this by returning the motorcycle to the scene and driving it. This is a matter of investigation. Sometimes people who are not asked about their age or health may claim that they have committed a crime they did not commit in order to protect others from legal action.

C. Legally obtained admissablity 

Our Code of Conduct clearly sets out how the evidence should be collected. Therefore, the collection of evidence is outside the scope of the investigation, as required by law. For example, under Article 19 (2) of the Penal Code, the Code of Criminal Procedure clearly states under Article 27 (2) of the Penal Code. Evidence collected in this way will not be considered legal because it has been obtained in violation of the provisions of the law, has been misrepresented, intimidated and coerced by witnesses, raided people’s homes and property, and so on.

Therefore, in order for an evidence to be accepted before the law, any evidence must play a role in the administration of criminal justice.

4. Collection of evidence

We have looked at the nature, importance and type of evidence above. Under this article, we will look at how these pieces of evidence should be collected. Basically, the evidence is collected by the investigating police officer who conducts investigations in accordance with the procedural rules of the Penal Code. He may conduct an investigation. When the victim makes a personal complaint in accordance with Article 212 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, any person or himself or any other police officer has a reasonable suspicion of committing a crime based on the allegations or allegations made by the plaintiff. On the other hand, since the police are currently investigating the crime in conjunction with the law, they should be referred to the relevant body or dismissed, rather than deciding whether to initiate an investigation if the case is not a criminal case and if it is a civil or administrative decision. However, they decide to investigate whether the case is a criminal offense under both our criminal law and various proclamations.

Once the investigator has received a complaint or charge, the next step is to gather evidence, documentation, and evidence to prove that the case or substance is true or that the conclusion of the case is true. It is important to know that it should be conducted, because the investigation can be distorted and misrepresent the basic facts that should not be lost.

A. Collecting Evidence

It is one of the most widely used pieces of evidence that the police can use to explain the facts of a criminal investigation. Therefore, the police, in conjunction with the prosecutor, in accordance with Article 30 of the Criminal Procedure Code, including the alleged perpetrator and the perpetrator or the perpetrator after the crime. Wherever he goes, Hollow may call on people he trusts to know directly or indirectly about the incident, or experts who should give a professional witness. The people who are called are also obliged to appear in person and tell the truth In the process, bribery, extortion, intimidation, and the use of force are prohibited. Evidence obtained in this way is also unacceptable. Also, if the witness answers the question, the police themselves. Article 30 (2) of the Code of Criminal Procedure stipulates that he may be held liable and that he has the right not to answer the question. Therefore, the investigating police officer must respect this right. However, if this right is clearly prohibited by law, he is obliged to respond if he refuses to report the crime. For example, we can look at Proclamation No. 909/2007 on Trafficking in Persons and Refugees.

 Let us look at the methods used by the British in the investigation of serious and serious crimes.

PEACE model

P-Preparation and planning

E-Engagement and explain

A-Account

C-Closure (Closure)

E-Evaluation

Preparation and Planning: The police, in conjunction with the law, should plan the investigation into the moderation, timing and sequence of the investigation and begin with the necessary methods, equipment, expertise and location for the investigation. Based on what we get from whom, what we ask for, at what stage the suspect should be arrested, if the investigation requires a public investigation, what action should we take to ensure that the sources of evidence are not harmed by wind, water or human beings and do not exist? They need to be prepared for the risk of being apprehended. This planned and prepared investigation saves time, money, and government costs by repeatedly calling witnesses.

Presentation and presentation: Witnesses come up with a number of issues in mind. Some of these issues are the misconception that I will benefit from testifying against the defendant, the fear that he will retaliate if I testify today, that I may call my testimony repeatedly and interrupt my personal life, and so on. The witness must be cleansed of these thoughts and concerns. In order to do this, the police must do everything possible to explain and reassure them that these threats do not occur and, in fact, to avoid problems. For example, in terms of risk, it is safe to say that the government has a law to protect witnesses and witnesses. it is.

The other point is that it is better to approach the witnesses in a simplified manner and talk about the general social issues for a few minutes before entering the case and tactfully get into the main issue. If this is the case, how about the witness’s personal life and his or her relationship with the suspect and victim? It helps to make sure that he knows what he is doing, but it also allows him to explain everything he knows without fear or panic. He then needs to explain the content of the case and explain what is required of him. The expression must be carefully considered, as it may hinder the investigation.

The biggest and most important precaution in the collection of evidence is that the testimony is based on truth and is not intended to harm or benefit anyone, because the witness has been bribed, to protect himself, his relatives, his friends, his family … in the past. False testimony may be given to the defendant in the event of a dispute or retaliation. In this regard, the police are obliged to verify that the witness’s statement is free of any of the above problems. The police should examine the witness before accepting the statement. Article 30 of the Criminal Procedure Code provides for the investigation of witnesses by the police. If we look at the English version, it is entitled Examination of Witness by the police. Therefore, the witness should examine the facts of the witness’s statement instead of just writing what he says.

5. Obligation of the witness

The evidence that a person gives to an investigating police officer must be true and far-fetched from what he or she has seen, heard, tasted, smelled, and explored, because the false testimony of a person who has not committed a crime that should have been acquitted has a negative impact. The law provides for criminal prosecution for defamation.

Questioning: The police should not question the witness leader in the first place. The questions that need to be answered are the questions that need to be answered. There are some unanswered questions that need to be answered, and it is best to finally clarify them with the leading questions.

The remaining two parts are summarizing and measuring or measuring.

In this way, the evidence that the witness has been properly questioned must be attached to the record of the investigation. In particular, the question to be asked of the witness must be in a way that proves the substance of the crime. When, how, who, what, what, why, what … he knows. We should not wait for him to tell us what we want him to say

B. Collection of documentary evidence

Documents can be obtained from governmental and non-governmental organizations, private businesses, public enterprises, medical institutions, the Federal Police Forensic Investigation Department, the Quality and Standards Authority, educational institutions, banking and insurance institutions, and so on. Information must be carefully collected and maintained. One of the precautions is that the document collected must be directly or indirectly related to the subject matter of the investigation or the subject matter to be verified, in accordance with the rules of procedure and in respect of human rights (Article 26 of the Constitution). He must also prove their legitimacy.

These documents indicate a person’s identity, qualifications and license, disability or cause of death, the cause of the fire, the amount of money in the bank account, the quality of the product, the audit report showing the financial deficiency, employment and dismissal, and so on. These documents are presented so that the court can look at them and understand them. If another hidden camera that can record and record human activity is used, this video will make the investigation effective.

Some criminal cases are based on documentary evidence. It is important that these documents are presented and brought to the attention of the judiciary to investigate and prosecute these crimes. On the other hand, a person who knows or assumes that his or her actions are criminal charges may destroy the evidence and prevent the police from accessing them. Special attention should be paid to the location of the evidence as soon as possible.

The other piece of evidence is evidence of the defendant’s confession at the station.

It is sufficient to refer to Section 27 (2). Under this provision, the defendant is not obliged to testify, but stipulates that the statement shall be made as a voluntary statement without any pressure or influence. In this regard, the police shall, in any way respect the constitutional rights of individuals. Defendant’s statement obtained in this way will not be accepted. Instead, the police must explain to the defendant in a language that the respondent has the right not to respond to the request. The FDRE Constitution also provides for the defendant’s rights and obligations under Article 19 (2) of the FDRE Constitution. It clearly states the combination.

C. Collection of descriptive evidence

We have looked at the nature of the evidence above. These evidence are the location of the crime, the hands of the perpetrator, the place where the proceeds of the crime are stored or hidden, and so on, the property the suspect used or committed as a result of the crime. The police can seize this evidence in a variety of ways. The first is based on a search warrant issued by a court of law, when the police suspect that a person has committed a crime and has hidden or stored evidence in the house. He may search the premises where he is suspected of hiding or storing evidence, such as fences, farms, vehicles, ships, airplanes, and so on.

The search warrant must state the nature of the search and seizure evidence. Therefore, the police may not search or seize anything other than what is on the search warrant. Instead, the list of items or items seized in accordance with the order must be observed by independent persons. Unless ordered, the time limit set by the police to conduct the search must be 12 noon to 12:00, as required by the Code of Conduct.

Therefore, anyone who reports that the police have come to search the house and seizes the evidence in the house may ask for a court order to do so, and if he does not do so, he may be told that he cannot enter the house unless he is able to do so. This is especially true without a court order. There is no legal basis for holding evidence.

The other is to search and out evidence without a court order. As mentioned above, a search warrant must be obtained from a court to gather evidence. However, in some cases, the police may search any house and seize evidence without having to do so. This is if the first offender was caught red-handed or committed the crime under house surveillance or deposited evidence in the house, and the other was charged under Article 32 (2) (b) of the Penal Code with more than three years’ imprisonment. However, if the police suspect that the item may be removed or confiscated until the issuance of a search warrant, the search warrant may be searched and seized without the need for a court order. Everyone has the right to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

These assets will remain in the hands of the government until the court makes a final decision on the matter and may eventually be returned to the rightful investor or owner, remitted to the government or not reused or disposed of. Evidence should be kept according to their nature. But first, these materials must be numbered, categorized in type, quantity, and content, and held accountable.

If the evidence is perishable, such as fruits and grains, they should be sold immediately by photography or videotape, and the proceeds from the sale should be kept in a bank until the matter is finally decided (Exhibit Management and Preservation Manual).

6. The house is searched and everyone is obligated

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.  It is also the responsibility of the police to inform the suspect that he or she is preparing to receive the evidence. On the other hand, the police are required to authorize and cooperate during the investigation. The law stipulates that the police may use force as long as they are able to conduct the search if there is opposition to any attempt to obstruct the search.

7. Crime scene investigation

One of the ways in which a police officer collects evidence during a criminal investigation is through a crime scene investigation. This investigation involves the police in person at the scene of the crime. The crime scene may include the land, water body, ship, car, forest area, and so on.

The investigation is usually carried out at the moment the crime is committed. The first task of the criminal investigation team is to identify, rescue and care for the victims, and to arrest the suspect while he or she is away. Then identify those who were present and those who need evidence. Take notes and, if possible, testify. Once this is done, the next step is to prevent people from entering the area by enclosing as much land as possible to collect evidence and to keep track of the identities of previous occupants. This is due to the fact that some pieces of evidence may be damaged by human contact. (For example, forensic examination samples, such as fingerprints) and because the people in the area are in contact with the crime scene, their fingerprints may be found in the reference work.

In particular, criminal investigations, such as human trafficking and cross-border trafficking, are likely to be lost, and forensic investigators will be able to collect evidence, travel with the CID, and identify the samples used as evidence for investigation. It should be pointed out and collected. This evidence cannot be recovered after it has been made available to the public, so the expert must be sure that the evidence or samples were taken with certainty and without exception.

as if Forensic tests are samples used to obtain evidence of blood, urine, semen, hair, etc. from a crime scene.

8. What is expected of the community? 

Anyone in the area of ​​the crime must report the crime to the police officer, who must not try to enter the crime scene or house until the police arrive and complete the necessary evidence gathering, and prevent others from entering the crime scene, for example, business. A person whose property has been broken into or whose property has been stolen should not enter the store, touch the door handle and body parts, as well as items in the room, as this will reduce the chances of the police getting the evidence they need. When the victim sees another person, when he sees or suspects any crime, the investigating officer must inform the police and protect the area from himself or others.

The police, using professional investigation techniques, can take the necessary precautionary evidence to the court, collect the evidence of the alleged source of the crime, make sure that nothing is left out, hand it over carefully, transport the sample or fingerprints to the place of examination, and confirm the results in writing. It should be included in the preamble. It should be listed in the preamble. In particular, crimes that require forensic investigation, such as arson, murder, drug use and / or conspiracy, human trafficking, etc., should be investigated in this way.

Accordingly, if a person is killed during a crime scene investigation, the body must be sent to the hospital and the results should be monitored. In this regard, medical professionals should independently examine the extent of the injuries, from ordinary injuries to death, and send the findings to the examination room in a confidential manner.

9. Evidence presentation

As noted above, the police, in conjunction with the prosecutor, will evaluate the evidence after completing the evidence collection and investigation. If the evidence is not sufficient to prosecute the defendant, the evidence indicates that sufficient evidence has not been provided. 1) A closes the case on the basis of A, but when he believes that the evidence can prove the substance of the case, he will file a lawsuit citing the provisions of the law. He will then refer the case to the competent court.

During the hearing, the defendant presented the details of the evidence attached to the case, stating that the case had been read to him and that the court had ruled in his favor after the first instance objection and the defendant’s response, and that he had denied the allegations in whole or in part. It is important to note that in the case of a single charge against a defendant, it is not possible to have a witness on the grounds that the defendant has admitted part of the charge and that the other party has not been able to prove his guilt. Article 134 (1) of the Criminal Procedure Code provides for this.

In this case, if the defendant denies the charge, the burden of proof rests with the prosecutor, because he has a duty to explain the facts of the case and to prove the correctness of the conclusion. The burden of proof can be transferred to the defendant if he is able to prove the charge according to the original evidence. Given the unique nature of crimes such as corruption (unknown income) and human trafficking and smuggling, the burden of proof goes to the defendant. For example, a government with a low monthly salary. The law requires that the defendant be paid a significant amount of money, depending on the amount of wages he or she receives each month and the amount of assets he or she acquires. The law does not require the defendant to adequately explain his or her obligations to other offenders. He is obliged to explain where he got the property or how he was able to produce it. The law does not adequately explain that I am illegally acquiring the property and if he requests that I be acquitted, it will not be accepted.

Returning to the formal criminal evidence system, the prosecutor presented the evidence, documents and descriptive evidence to the court for review of the facts of the case. Therefore, he or she may present the evidence gathered during the investigation in an orderly or coherent manner. If the evidence cannot be presented in court due to its unique nature, it must be presented with a photograph, as well as a small sample of the evidence presented to the court.

After these arguments were presented, the left and right argued that if the evidence adequately clarified the facts of the case, the court ordered the defendant to present his defense and refute the charges. The defendant used the legal procedure used by the prosecution to present his evidence.

Summary

  • Evidence is information that is intended to convince the judicial body of a decision on the merits or demerits of a case.

  • On the other hand, in light of the above detail, the difference between information and evidence must be clearly identified
     Gathering sufficient and convincing evidence before a court of law is an appropriate and important matter
     Evidence that can explain the facts directly or indirectly related to the act;
  •  Evidence can be divided into two main categories in terms of the method we use to explain the facts and the purpose for which the evidence is presented. Evidence should be available.
     
  • In terms of the method we use to explain the facts, we can divide the evidence into human testimony, documentation, and narrative.

  •  Evidence may be divided into direct or indirect evidence.
     Testimony is the oral testimony of people who use their senses to present their case to a body that investigates a crime or to a court of law.

  •  Witnesses are required to provide accurate and unambiguous information about what they have heard, tasted, smelled, and explored.

  •  Document Evidence Any type of text, mark, or paper with any type of evidence or sound and / or image is generally recorded.

  •  Documentary documents indicate the nature of the injury or death, the cause of the fire, the amount of money in the bank account, the quality of the product, the audit report showing the deficit, various official letters about decisions about employment and dismissal, etc.

  •  These evidence during the hearing Plaintiff and Defendant Propagate the Court to Consider
     The instrument used by the defendant to commit the crime shall be subject to this type of evidence.

  •  The police must gather evidence, documents, and evidence to prove that a case or substance is true or that the conclusion is true.

  •  A crime scene investigation is a way for the police to gather evidence in person at the scene of a crime. The crime scene may include the land, water body, ship, car, forest area, and so on.

  •  In light of the burden of proof, the prosecutor is obliged to explain the facts of the case if the defendant has denied the allegations.

  •  However, depending on the nature of the crime, the burden of proof may be borne by the defendant when it is clearly determined by law.

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