=======በወንጀል ጉዳይ የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ እና አቀራረብ=========


በወንጀል ጉዳይ የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ እና አቀራረብ

=======.   ለንቃተ ህግ ትምህርት .======

የወንጀል ህግ ዋና አላማ የህዝብን ሰላም እና ደህንነት ማስጠበቅ ነው፡፡ በመሆኑም ሰዎች የእለት ተእለት ኑሯቸውን በሚመሩበት ሂደት ውስጥ ህገመንግስታዊ መብቶቻቸው ሊጠበቁላቸው የሚገባ መሆኑ እንዳለ ሆኖ እነሱም የሌላውን ሰው መብት የማክበር እና ከመጣስ የመቆጠብ ግዴታ አለባቸው፡፡ይሁንና ይህን ግዴታቸውን ቸል በማለት የሌላውን ሰው መብት የሚጥሱ ከሆነ የወንጀል፣ ፍትሀብሄራዊ እንዲሁም አስተዳደራየአስተዳደር ህግ እና የሰብዓዊ መብት አፈፃፀም

 የአስተዳደር ህግ እና የሰብዓዊ መብት አፈፃፀም

ተደጋግሞ እንደተገለፀው የመንግስት ስልጣን በወርድም በቁመትም እየሰፋ በመጣ ቁጥር ለዜጐች መብትና ነፃነት ፀር ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ የስልጣንን አስፈላጊነት አምኖ ተቀብሎታል፡፡ ውጤታማ አስተዳደር እንዲሁም ቀልጣፋ የአገልግሎት አቅርቦት እንዲኖር የሚያስር ሳይሆን የሚፈታ ስልጣን ያስፈልጋል፡፡ ሆኖም ከህግና ከህገ መንግስት የሚያፈነግጥ ስልጣን ከጥቅሙ ጉዳቱ ያመዝናል፡፡ የበዘፈቀደ ድርጊት፣ ‘እንደፈለግኩኝ እሆናለው እፈልጣለው እቆርጣለው!’ የሚል አካሄድ አቅመ ቢስ የሆነውን ዜጋ የመኖር፣ በነፃነት የመንቀሳቀስ፣ የመናገር፣ ሀሳብን የመግለፅና ንብረት የማፍራት መሰረታዊ መብት አለገደብ ይሸረሽራል፡፡

የአስተዳደር ህግ የሰብዓዊ መብትን በማስጠበቅ ረገድ ያለው ሚና የሁለቱን ትስስር በሚገባ ያሳየናል፡፡ ህጉ በሰብዓዊ መብት አጠባበቅና አፈፃፀም ላይ ያለውን አዎንታዊ ተፅእኖ በሚገባ ለመረዳት ከሰብዓዊ መብቶች አተገባበር አንፃር የመንግስትን ግዴታ መተንተኑ አግባብነት ይኖረዋል፡፡ እነዚህም ሚናዎች (ግዴታዎች) የማክበር (respect) የማስከበር (protect) እንዲሁም የመፈጸምና የማስፈፀም (enforcement) ናቸው፡፡

በመጀመሪያው መብቶችን የማክበር የመንግስት ሚና ዜጐች ነፃ ሆነው መብታቸውን ሲጠቀሙ ከየትኛውም የመንግስት አካል የሚመጣ ጣልቃ ገብነትን ይገድባል፡፡ በተለይም መሰረታዊ በሚባሉት በህይወት የመኖር፣ የመፃፍ፣ የመናገር፤ የፈለጉትን ሀይማኖት የመከተል፤ በነፃነት የመዘዋወርና ንብረት የማፍራት መብቶችና ነፃነቶች በተግባር የሚረጋገጡት መንግስት እጁን ሲሰበስብ ነው፡፡ እነዚህ መብቶች በመንግስት በተለይ በስራ አስፈፃሚውና በስሩ ባሉት የአስተዳደር ተቋማት ውሳኔ፤ ትዕዛዝ፤ ደንብና መመሪያ አማካይነት አደጋ ላይ ሊወድቁ ይችላሉ፡፡ ህገ መንግስቱ የበላይ ህግ እንደመሆኑ ይህን የሚቃረን ህግ፣ ውሳኔና አሰራር ሁሉ ተፈፃሚነት አይኖረውም፡፡ ይህን መሰሉ የህገ መንግስታዊነት ጥያቄ በአስተዳደር ህግ ውስጥ አይወድቅም፡፡ ይሁን እንጂ የህገ መንግስታዊነት ብቻ የሚመስል ጥያቄ በአስተዳደር ህግ ማእቀፍ የሚሸፈንበት አጋጣሚ ሰፊ ነው፡፡

በአንድ የአስተዳደር ተቋም የወጣ መመሪያ በህግ አውጭው ከተሰጠ የውክልና ስልጣን በማለፍ የዜጐችን ሰብዓዊ መብት የሚገድብ ሆኖ ከተገኘ በውስጡ የህገ መንግስታዊነት (constitutionality) ጥያቄ ያዘለ ቢሆንም በዋናነት ግን የአስተዳደር ህግ ሊመልሰው የሚገባ የህጋዊነት (legality) ጥያቄ ነው፡፡ ልዩነታቸውን የበለጠ መረዳት እንዲያስችልን የሚከተለውን የድሮው የገቢዎች ሚኒስቴር የአሁኑ የገቢዎችና ጉምሩክ ባለስልጣን መመሪያ እንመልከት፡፡

ማንኛውም የጉምሩክ ፖሊስ ሰላማዊ ስልፍና የስራ ማቆም አድማ ማድረግ አይችልም፡፡

ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ የማድረግ መብት በኢ.ፌ.ዲ.ሪ ህገ መንግስት ለማንኛውም ሰው የተረጋገጠ መብት ነው፡፡ መብቱን የሚያጎናጽፈው የአንቀጽ 30 ንዑስ ቁጥር 1 እንዲህ ይነበባል፡፡

ማንኛውም ሰው ከሌሎች ጋር በመሆን መሳሪያ ሳይዝ በሰላም የመሰብሰብ ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ የማድረግ ነፃነትና አቤቱታ የማቅረብ መብት አለው፡፡

አንድ መመሪያ በስራ አስፈፃሚው አካል ሲወጣ ከህግ አውጭው በግልጽ የተሰጠ የውክልና ስልጣን (Delegation) ሊኖር ይገባል፡፡ መመሪያው የውክልና ስልጣኑን ገደብ ካለፈ ከስልጣን በላይ (Ulta vires) ነው፡፡ ስለሆነም በህግ ፊት ዋጋ አልባ (null and void) ነው፡፡ የገቢዎች ሚኒስቴር ይህን መመሪያ ሲያወጣ የስልጣን ምንጩን የጉምሩክ ባለስልጣንን ለማቋቋምና አስራሩን ለመወሰን የወጣው አዋጅ . 368/1995 አንቀጽ 8 (2) () እንደሆነ ይጠቅሳል፡፡ ይህ የተጠቀሰው የህግ ድንጋጌ እንዲህ ይነበባል፡፡

የጉምሩክ ህግ እንዲያስከብር ከፌደራል ፖሊስ ኮሚሽን የተመደበን የፖሊስ ኃይል ሚኒስቴሩ የፌደራል ፖሊስ አዋጅን ተከትሎ በሚያወጣው መመሪያ መሰረት በስራ ያሰማራል፡፡ ያስተዳድራል፡፡ ጥፋት ሲገኝም ያሰናብታል፡፡

ይህ አንቀጽ የጉምሩክ ፖሊስ ሰላማዊ ሰልፍ እንዳያደርግ በመመሪያ እንዲከለክል ለገቢዎች ሚኒስቴር ስልጣን አይሰጥም፡፡ ከተወካዮች ምክር ቤት ግልፅ ስልጣን ባልተሰጠበት ሁኔታ የወጣው ይህ መመሪያ ህጋዊነት ሆነ ተፈፃሚነት የለውም፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ይህን መሰል መመሪያዎች በዘፈቀደ እየወጡ የዜጐችን መብትና ነፃነት እንዳይጥሱ በተለያዩ መንገዶች በመቆጣጠር መንግስት ሰብዓዊ መብት የማክበር ግዴታውን እንዲወጣ ያደርጋል፡፡

የመንግስት የማስፈፀም ኃላፊነት አብዛኛውን ጊዜ ከማህበራዊ፤ ኢኮኖሚያዊና ባህላዊ መብቶች ጋር በቀጥታ ተያይዞ ይነሳል፡፡ መንግስት በዜጐች መብት ላይ ጣልቃ አለመግባቱ ወይም እጁን መሰብሰቡ ብቻ አይበቃም፡፡ ለዜጋው መሰረታዊ አገልግሎቶችን ማለትም ጤና፣ መብራት፣ ውሃ፣ መንገድ ወዘተ… ካላቀረበ ነፃ መሆን በራሱ ፋይዳ የለውም፡፡

የአስተዳደር ህግ እና የሰብዓዊ መብት ትሰስር ከመንግስት የማስከበር ግዴታ አንጻርም ሊቃኝ ይችላል፡፡ ከዚህ አንጻር መንግስት ሰብዓዊ መብትን በማስከበር ኃላፊነቱ መብት እንዳይጣስ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልቶች በህግ እና በተቋማዊ አደረጃጀት የማጠናከር፣ በመብት መጣስ ጉዳት ለደረሰበት ዜጋ ፈጣን ፍትህ የሚያገኝበትን ስርዓት መዘርጋት አለበት ማለት ነው፡፡ በአጭር አገላለጽ ሰብዓዊ መብቶች እንዲከበሩ መንግስት የዳበረ የአስተዳደር ህግ እና የአስተዳደር ህግ ስርዓት መቅረጽ፣ መትከልና ማጐልበት ይጠበቅበታል፡፡

ዊ እርምጃ ሊወሰድባቸው የተገባ ስለመሆኑ  በተለያዩ ህጎቻችን ላይ መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡

እነኚ እርምጃዎች እንደየጉዳዮቹ ባህሪ በፍርድ ቤት ወይም በአስተዳደራዊ ወይም አስፈጻሚ  ተቋማት ሊወሰዱ የሚችሉ ናቸው፡፡

የወንጀል ተጠያቂነትን በተመለከተ ፍ/ቤቶች በዋናናት እና በብቸኝነት ፍርድ የመስጠት ስልጣን ያላቸው ስለመሆኑ በህገመንግስቱ አንቀጽ 79(1)ስር ተቀምጦ የሚገኘው ድንጋጌ ያመላክተናል፡፡

በመሆኑም ፍ/ቤቶች የዳኝነት ስራቸውን በማከናወን ሂደት ውስጥ የሚቀርቡላቸውን ክሶች በመቀበል ማስተናግድ እና ፍትሃዊ እና ተገቢውን ፍርድ መስጠት የሚችሉት ጉዳዩን ለማረጋገጥ የሚችል በቂ ማስረጃ ሲገኝ ነው፡፡በወንጀል ጉዳይ ፍርድ ቤቶች ጉዳዩን ከማስተናገዳቸው በፊት ቅድሚያ ሊከናወኑ የሚገባቸው ዋና ዋና ጉዳዮች አሉ፡፡ እነኚህም የወንጀል ምርመራ እና ክስ አመሰራረት ሂደቶች  ናቸው፡፡

በመሆኑም ፖሊስ ከዐቃቤ ህግ ጋር በጋራ በመሆን  በሚያደርገው የምርመራ ስራ አንድን ድርጊት ፈጽሟል በሚል የተጠረጠረን ሰው ለፈጸመው ወንጀል እንዲቀጣ በማድረግ እራሱን አድራጊውንም ሆነ መሰል ተግባራትን የሚፈጽሙ ሰዎችን ለማስተማር ይቻል ዘንድ ፍርድ ቤት የሚቀርቡ ከሆነ ተከሳሽን ጥፋተኛ ሊያስብሉ የሚችሉ ማስረጃዎችን በሚገባ ማሰባሰብ እና የምርመራ መዝገብ ማደራጀት አለበት፡፡

ቀላል የማይባል ቁጥር ያለው የህብረተሰቡ ክፍል በዚህ ረገድ ካለው የግንዛቤ ማጣት እና ለህግ ተገዢ ለመሆን ፍቃደኛ ካለመሆን ጋር ተያይዞ በምርመራ ወቅት ፖሊስ በማስረጃነት የሚፈልጋቸው መረጃዎችን እና ማስረጃዎችን ካለመግለጽ አንስቶ እስከ መሰወር የሚደርስ ተግባራት ሲፈጽሙ እናስተውላለን፡፡

ይሁንና የምርመራ ስራ ያለህዝብ ተሳትፎ እና ትብብር ውጤታማ ሊሆን የማይችል በመሆኑ ህዝብ የመንግስት አይን በመሆን ህገ ወጥ ተግባራትን ከማጋለጥ አንስቶ መረጃዎችን እና ማስረጃዎችን ለመርማሪው አካል በመስጠት የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ ስርዓቱን በባለቤትነት ስሜት መደገፍ መቻል አለበት፡፡

በዚህ ጽሁፍም ፖሊስ በሚያከናውነው የወንጀል ምርመራ ስራ ውስጥ ማስረጃዎችን እንዴት ሊያሰባስብ እና ስለሚቀርቡበት እንደሚገባ፣የማስረጃዎችን ምንነት እና አስፈላጊነት፣ ስለ ማስረጃዎች ተቀባይነት፣ ህዝቡ መጫወት ስለሚገባው ሚና እና ስለ ማስረጃ ጽንሰ ሀሳብ ዋና ዋና ነጥቦችን ለመዳሰስ ጥረት ይደረጋል፡፡   

1.የወንጀል ማስረጃ ምንነት

ህጎቻችን ማስረጃን የሚመለከቱ አያሌ ድንጋጌዎችን በውስጣቸው የያዙ ቢሆንም ማስረጃን ግልጽ ሊያደርግ የሚችል ትርጉም ሰጥተውት አንመለከትም፡፡በመሆኑም የማስረጃን ምንነትን ለመረዳት  የተለያዩ የህግ ሊቆች ለቃሉ የሰጡትን ትርጉም ማየቱ ተገቢ ነው የሚሆነው፡፡

ሪቻርድ ሜይ የተባለው የህግ ጸሀፍት ለማስረጃ በሰጠው ትርጉም ማንኛውንም ፍሬ ነገር ወይም መደምደሚያን ለማረጋገጥ ወይም ለማስተባበል የሚጠቅም መረጃ ነው፡፡በክስ ማሰማት ሂደትም በጭብጥ የተያዙ ፍሬ ነገሮችን ለማረጋገጥ ወይም ለማስተባበል በሚል የሚቀርብ መረጃ ነው ይላሉ፡፡

በሌላ በኩል ማስረጃን ፍሬ ነገርን ወይም በጭብጥነት የተያዘን ጉዳይ መኖር አለመኖርን ውሳኔ በተመለከተ ውሳኔ ለሚሰጠው የዳኝነት አካል ለማሳመን በማሰብ የሚቀርብ መረጃ ነው በሚል ሊተረጎምም ይችላል፡፡

ከነኚህ ትርጉሞች የምንረዳው ማስረጃ የአንድን ነገር መፈጸም፣ወይም መፈጸም ግዴታ ሆኖ እያለ ባለመፈጸም ህግን መተላለፍ በወ/ል የሚያስጠይቅ በሆነ ጊዜ ድርጊቶቹ እውነት የተፈጸሙ መሆኑን ጉዳዩ ለሚቀርብለት ፍርድ ቤት ለማሳመን የሚቀርቡ ሲሆን በሌላ በኩል ተከሳሽም የቀረበበትን ክስ በተመለከተ ያለመፈጸሙን ለፍርድ ቤቱ በማረጋገጥ ለማስተባበል የሚያቀርባቸው መረጃዎች ናቸው፡፡ለምሳሌ በስርቆት ወንጀል የተከሰሰ ሰው ድርጊቱን በእርግጥም ፈጽሞታል ወይስ አልፈጸመውም የሚለውን በፍርድ ቤት የሚያዝ ጭብጥ ለማስረዳት ማስረጃዎች ወሳኝ ናቸው፡፡በመሆኑም ድርጊቱን መፈጸሙን የሚያረጋግጡ የተለያዩ ማስረጃዎችን ማቅረብ የግድ ይሆናል ማለት ነው፡፡ተከሳሽም ቢሆን ድርጊቱን ያልፈጸመ መሆኑን የሚያስረዱለትን የተለያዩ ማስረጃዎችን የማቅረብ እና የማሰማት መብት አለው፡፡በመሆኑም በቀጣይ ርዕስ በጥልቀት የምንመለከተው መሆኑ እንዳለ ሆኖ ግለሰቡ ድርጊቱን ሲፈጽም የተመለከተ ሰው የሚሰጠው የምስክርነት ቃል፣ በፈጸመው መንጀል ምክንያት እጁ የገባው የወንጀል ፍሬ(ስልክ፣ ገንዘብ፣ አልባሳት ወ.ዘ.ተ)

እነኚ ማስረጃች እንደየባህርያቸው በተለያዩ መንገዶች የሚርቡ ሲሆን የሰው የምስክርነት ቃል ከሆነ ምስክሩን አቅርቦ በማሰማት፣ የሰነድ ማስረጃ ከሆነ ሰነዱን አቅርቦ ይዘቱን በማሳየት እንዲሁም በኤግዚሂቢትነት የሚቀርብ ዕቃ ከሆነ ይህንኑ ዕቃ በማቅረብ ፍርድ ቤቱ ግንዛቤ እንዲወስድ በማድረግ በጭብትነት የተያዘውን ፍሬ ነገር መኖር ለማስረዳት እና የመደምደሚያውን ትክክለኛነት ለማረጋገጥ ይቻላል፡፡

ምስክሮቹ የሰጡት ወይም የሚሰጡት ቃል፣ ከቀረበው ሰነድ ላይ ወይም ዕቃ ላይ የተወሰደው ግንዛቤ ወይም መረዳት ማስረጃ ስንለው እነኚህኑ ማስረጃዎች ፍርድ ቤት ለማቅረብ የተጠቀምንባቸው ማለትም ምስክሩ፣ ሰነዱ እና ዕቃው ማስረጃን የማቅረቢያ ዘዴ በማለት ለያይተን መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡

በሌላ በኩል ከላይ ከጠቀስነው ዝርዝር ሀሳብ አንጻር በመረጃ እና በማስረጃ መካከል ያለ ልዩነት በውል መታወቅ አለበት፡፡ኣብዛኛው የማህበረሰብ ክፍል በሁለቱ ሀረጎች መካከል ያለውን ልዩነት በውል ለይቶ አያውቀውም፡፡ ማስረጃዎች ሁሉ መረጃዎች ሲሆኑ መረጃዎች ሁሉ ግን ማስረጃ ሊሆኑ አይችሉም፡፡ማስረጃ ማለት ሰዎች ከጥናት፣ ከንባብ፣ ከሰዎች ጋር ከሚደረግ ግንኙነት፣ ቀድሞ ከነበረ እውነታ ወይም ፍሬ ነገር እና በተግባር ከተገኘ ልምድ የሚመነጭ የሰዎች እውቀት ማለት ነው፡፡እነኚ እውቀቶች ሁሉ መረጃ እንጂ ማስረጃ ላይሆኑ ይችላሉ፡፡

የማስረጃን ባህሪ ከላይ ተመልክተና::በመሆኑም መረጃዎችን በማስረጃ ደረጃ እንዲገኙ እና ከላይ ለተጠቀሰው አላማ ጥቅም ላይ ለማዋል መረጃዎቹ ተጠባጭ ወደሆነ አስረጂነት ደረጃ ከፍ እንዲሉ ለማስቻል የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ የሚጨጫወተው ሚና ጉልህ ነው ማለት ነው፡፡ለምሳሌ አቶ ለማ ከዚህ ቀደም ሰዎችን በህገ ወጥ መንገድ ወደ አረብ ሀገር ሲልክ እሰማለው ወይም ይልካ ሲባል እሰማለው የሚለውን የአቶ ምናሴን ንግግር ብንመለከት ግለሰቡ አቶ ለማ ድርጊቱን ሲፈጽም በቀጥታም ሆነ በተዘዋዋሪ የተመለከቱ ሳይሆን  ከተለያዩ ምንጮች የሰሙትን እውቀታቸውን ነው የገለጹት፡፡በመሆኑም ግለሰቡ ወ/ሉን ከመፈጸሙ በፊት ያለው ባህሪ ስለፈጸመው ወንጀል ማስረጃ ሊሆን አይችልም፡፡ይህ ማለት ግን አይጠቅምም ማለት አይደለም፡፡ ከግለሰቡ የተገኘው መረጃ በምርመራ ሂደት የሚበለጽግ ከሆነ በማስረጃነት ሊጠቅም  ይችላል፡፡ምክንያቱም ፖሊስ ከዚህ መረጃ በመነሳት በሚያደርገው የምርመራ ስራ ድርጊቱን የፈጸመው የተባለው ሰው ስለመሆኑ የሚያስረዱ ተጨባጭ ማስረጃዎችን እንዲሰበስብ ይረዱታል፡፡

ማስረጃ ተፈጸመ የተባለን ወንጀል አፈጻጸም እና መችየት፣ የፈጻሚን ማንነት፣ በወንጀል ተግባሩ የተገኘው ጥቅም እና የደረሰን ጉዳት እና የመሳሰሉትን ፍሬ ነገሮች ለማረጋገጥ የምንጠቀምበት መረጃ ነው፡፡    

2.የማስረጃ አስፈላጊነት

ማንኛውም ከሳሽ ላቀረበው ክስ ፍ/ቤት ፍትሃዊ ውሳኔ እንዲሰጥለት እና እንደ ክሱ ጥፋተኛ ይልለት ዘንድ ማስረጃዎችን በማሰማት ማሳመን አለበት፡፡ተከሳሽም የቀረበበትን ክስ ለማስተባበል እና ፍርድ ቤት በነጻ እንዲያሰናብተው(ተከላከል ከተባለ በኋላ) ማስረጃዎችን አቅርቦ ማሰማት እና ማስረዳት(ማሳመን)አለበት፡፡እንዲሁም በቀረበበት ክስ ላይ የመጀመርያ መቃወሚያ ያለው እንደሆነ መቃወሚያውን የሚያረጋግጡለትን ማስረጃዎች አቅርቦ ወይም አስቀርቦ ማስረዳት ይችላል፡፡የቅጣት ማቅለያ ምክንያቶችንም በተመሳሳይ በማቅረብ ሊያስረዳ ይችላል፡፡ፍርድ ቤቶችም የሚሰጡት የመጨረሻ ውሳኔ ተከራካሪ ወገኖች ከሚያቀርቧቸው ማስረጃዎች አንጻር የሚወስዱትን ግምት መሰረት በማድረግ ነው፡፡በመሆኑም ክስ ከመመስረቱ በፊት በቂ እና ፍርድ ቤትን ሊያሳምን የሚችል ማስረጃ ማሰባሰብ ተገቢ እና ወሳኝ ጉዳይ ነው፡፡በተለይም በወንጀል ጉዳይ ክስ የሚመሰርተው ዐቃቤ ህግ እንደመሆኑ መጠን ክስ ከመመስረቱ እና ወደ ፍርድ ቤት ከመላኩ በፊት በቂ እና ክስን ለመመስረት የሚያስችል ማስረጃ የተሰበሰበ መሆኑን ማረጋገጥ አለበት፡፡በዚህ መንገድ የተሰበሰበው ማስረጃ በፍርድ ቤት የሚቀርብ ከሆነ በክሱ ላይ የተጠቀሱት ፍሬ ነገሮች ስለመኖራቸው ማሳየት የሚቻልበት እድል ሰፊ ይሆናል፡፡ከዚህ የምንረዳው አቃቤ ህግ ክስ በሚመሰርትበትም ሆነ ፍርድ ቤቶች በቀረበላቸው ክስ ላይ ግራ ቀኙን አከራክረው እና መርምረው ውሳኔ ለመስጠት ይችሉ ዘንድ ማስረጃ የሚጫወተው ሚና የማይተካ መሆኑን ነው፡፡

የትኛውም አይነት የወንጀል ድርጊት መፈጸሙ ብቻውን ቅጣትን ለመጣል በቂ አይደልም፡፡ይልቁንም በድርጊቱ ውስጡ ያሉትን ፍሬ ነገሮች ሊያስረዳ የሚችል ከድርጊቱ ጋር በቀጥታም ሆነ ቀጥተኛ ባልሆነ መንገድ ተያያዥነት ያለው፣ በህጋዊ መንገድ የተገኘ እና ተጨባጭነት ያለው በቂ ማስረጃ ሊኖር የተገባ ነው፡፡ይህ ከሆነ የወንጀል ተግባራትን የፈጸሙ ሰዎች ከተጠያቂነት እንዳይድኑ ከተጠያቂነት ነጻ ሊሆኑ የሚገባቸው ሰዎች ነጻ መሆናቸው እንዲረጋገጥላቸው ማስረጃ ቁልፍ ሚናን ያበረክታል፡፡

3.የማስረጃ አይነት

በወንጀል ጉዳይ የሚሰበሰቡ ማስረጃዎች በጭብጥነት የተያዘ ፍሬ ነገርን ለማስረዳት ከምንጠቀምበት ዘዴ አንጻር እና ማስረጃው ሊያስረዳው ከተያዘለት አላማ አንጻር በሚል በሁለት ዋና ዋና ባህርያት ከፋፍለን መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡

ማስረጃዎች ፍሬ ነገርን ወይም የመደምደሚያውን ትክክለኝነት ለማስረዳት ከምንጠቀምበት ዘዴ አንጻር ማስረጃዎችና በሶስት ዋና ዋና ዘርፎች ከፋፍለን መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡እነኚህም የምስክርነት ማስረጃ፣ የሰነድ ማስረጃ እና ገላጭ ማስረጃ ናቸው፡፡

.የምስክርነት ማስረጃ (testimonial evidence)

ይህ አይነቱ ማስረጃ ሰዎች የአንድን ፍሬ ነገር መኖር ወይም አለመኖር ወይም የአንድን ድርጊት መፈጸም እና አለመፈጸም ወይም የአንድን ጉዳይ ድምዳሜ ትክክለኝነት በስሜት ህዋሳታቸው በመጠቀም የተረዱትን ነገር በአካል ወንጀልን ለሚመረምር አካል ወይም ለፍርድ ቤት በአካል በመቅረብ በንግግር የሚገልጹበት መንገድ ነው፡፡ በስሜት ህዋሳታቸው ስንል በአይናቸው የተመለከቱትን፣ በጆሯቸው የሰሙትን፣ በምላሳቸው የቀመሱትን፣ በአፍንጫቸው ያሸተቱትን፣ በቆዳቸው የነኩትን እና ስሜት የሰጣቸውን ነገር ማለት ነው፡፡

ከላይ እንደጠቀስነው የምስክርነት ማስረጃ በአካል በመቅረብ በንግግር ሊደረግ የሚገባ ቢሆንም ምስክሩ መናገር የተሳነው ወይም የማይችል ከሆነ ከላይ በጠቀስነው ሁኔታ ያወቀውን መረጃ በምልክት ሊገልጽ እና ገለጻው የምልክት ቋንቋን በሚያውቅ ሰው ለፍርድ ቤቱ በንግግር ሊተረጎም ይችላል፡፡ምስክሩ ለፍርድ ቤቱ የሚገልጸውን ጉዳይ በቀጥታ ወይም ቀጥተኛ ባልሆነ መንገድ ሊያስረዳ ይችላል(በቀጣዩ ክፍል ይብራል)፡፡ለምሳሌ በ ንብረትነቱ የ ለ የሆነውን ተንቀሳቃሽ ስልክ ከ ለ ኪስ ውስጥ ሲወስድ(አውጥቶ ሲወስድ) ተመልክቻለው ቢል ወይም ተ ለ የተባለውን ሰው እገድልሃው ብሎ ሲዝትበት ሰምቻለው ሲል ቃሉን ቢሰጥ ወይም ሟች አስክሬኑ በተገኘበት ክፍል አከባቢ ከሁለት ቀናት ቀደም ብሎ ጀምሮ የሞተ እንስሳ ጠረን የሸተተው መሆኑን ሊገልጽ ይችላል ይህ ግለሰቡ በቀጥታ ያገኘው መረጃ ነው፡፡ በበሌላ በኩል ፍሬ ነገሩን እራሱ በቀጥታ ሰምቶት ወይም ተመልክቶት ሳይሆን ከሌላ ሰው ሰምቶ መሆኑን ወይም ድርጊቱ ከመፈጸሙም በፊት ሆነ በኋላ ከፍሬ ነገሩ ጋር ተያያዥነት ስላለው አንድ ጉዳይ በመግለጽ ሊያስረዳ ይችላል፡፡ለምሳሌ ሟች ነብሱ ከስጋው ከመላቀቋ በፊት ስደርስ ሸ ነው የወጋኝ ብሎ እያቃተተ ሲናገር ሰምቻለው ቢል ወይም ለ ከሞተበት ጊዜ ከድቂቃዎች ቀደም ብሎ የደም እንጥብጣቢ ያለበት ሸሚዝ የለበሰ ሰው በአጠገቤ እየሮጠ አልፏል ቢል ይህ የምስክርነት ማስረጃ አካባቢያዊ ማስረጃ ነው፡፡

.የሰነድ ማስረጃ(document evidence)

የሰነድ ማስረጃ ከቃሉም እንደምንረዳው በላዩ ላይ ማንኛውም አይነት ጽሁፍ፣ምልክት፣ ስዕል ያለበት ወረቀት በአጠቃላይ በጽሁፍ የተገለጹ ማናቸውም ማስረጃዎች ወይም ድምጽ እና/ወይም  ምስል የተቀረጸበት ነገር ነው፡፡ለምሳሌ  በጽሁፍ የተደረጉ ውሎች፣ የህክምና እና ምርመራ ውጤቶች፣ በጽሁፍ የቀረቡ የፎረንሲክ ምርመራ ውጤቶች፣ ስዕሎች፣ ቻርቶች፣ የኦዲት ሪፖርቶች፣ የቴፕ እና የቪዲዮ ቅጂዎች፣ ሀሰተኛ የምስክር ወረቀቶች እና የመሳሰለት የሰነድ ማስረጃ መገለጫዎች ናቸው፡፡በመሆኑም እነኚ ማስረጃዎች የወንጀሉን ፍሬ ነገር ለማስዳት ይችላሉ፡፡

ወንጀሉ የተፈጸመው ሰነዶቹን በማቅረብ ሲሆን(ለምሳሌ-ሀሰተኛ የአሽከርካሪነት ብቃት ማረጋገጫ)፣ ድርጊቱን ሲፈጽም በካሜራ እይታ ውስጥ ሆኖ የነበረ እንደሆነ፣ ድርጊቱ ከተፈጸመ በኋላም በድርጊቱ ምክንያት የደረሰን የጉዳት መጠን እና አይነት(ለምሳሌ-አካል ጉዳት) ለመለየት እንዲሁም  ጉዳቱ ሊደርስ የቻለበትን ምክንያት(ለምሳሌ- እሳት ቃጠሎ) ሊያስረዳ የሚችል የፎረንሲክ ምርመራ የጽሁፍ መግለጫ ሁሉ የሰነድ ማስረጃዎች ናቸው፡፡

.ገላጭ ማስረጃ  (demonstrative evidence)

እነኚ ማስረጃዎች በችሎት ክርክር ወቅት ከሳሽ እና ተከሳሽ ፍርድ ቤት ተመልክቶ  ግምት እንዲወስድበት  የሚያቀርቧቸው ማስረጃዎች ናቸው፡፡ተከሳሹ የወንጀል ድርጊቱን ለመፈጸም የተጠቀመበት መሳርያ፣ በፈጸመው ወንጀል ምክንያት በእጁ ወይም በሶስተኛ ወገን እጅ የተገኙ ንብረቶች በዚህ የማስረጃ አይነት ስር የሚወድቁ ናቸው፡፡

በመሆኑም እነኚ ማስረጃዎች ፍርድ ቤት በሚቀርቡ ጊዜ ፍርድ ቤቱ በትክክልም በክሱ ላይ የተጠቀሰውን ወይም በክርክሩ የተያዘውን ጭብጥ ወይም ሊያዝ የሚገባውን መደምደሚያ ትክክለኛነት ለማረጋገጥ ይረዳዋል፡፡ለአብነትም የቀረበው ገላጭ ማስረጃ እውነትም  ድርጊቱን ለመፈጸም የሚያስችል ነው ወይስ አይደለም  ወይም በተከሳሹ ተወሰደ የተባለው እቃ በሸክም ከቦታ ወደ ቦታ ሊጓጓዝ ይችላል ወይስ አይችልም የሚለውን ጉዳይ ለመለየት ጉልህ ሚናን ያበረክታል፡፡

ሌላኛው ማስረጃው ሊያስረዳው ከታለመለት አላማ አንጻር ቀጥተኛ እና ቀጥተኛ ያልሆነ ወይም አካባቢያዊ ማስረጃ(circumstancial evidense) በሚል በሁለት ከፍለን መመልከትም እንችላለን ቀጥተኛ  በሆነ ማስረጃ እና ቀጥተኛ ባልሆነ ማስረጃ መካከል ያለውን መሰረታዊ ልዩነት ከላይ በምስክርነት ማስረጃ ስር ተመልክተናል በተጨማሪ ግን የሰነድ ማስረጃዎችም ቀጥተኛ ወይም ቀጥተኛ ያልሆኑ በሚል ከፍለን ልንመለከታቸው እንችላለን፡፡ለምሳሌ በሰዎች መካከል ስላለ ግዴታ የሚያወራ አንድ ሰነድ በአስረጀነት ቢቀርብ ይህ ማስረጃ ቀጥተኛ የሰነድ ማስረጃ ልንለው እንችላለን፡፡

ይሁንና ስለዚሁ ሰነድ በተጨባጭ የሚያወራ ሌላ ሰነድ ቢቀርብ ይህ ማስረጃ ቀጥተኛ ሊሆን አይችልም፡፡ለምሳሌ ተዋዋይ ወገኖች በገቡት ግዴታ መሰረት ገዢ ወይም ውል ተቀባይ የመጀመርያውን ክፍያ 1000 ብር በቼክ ፈጽሟል የሚል ሀረግ ቢኖር እና ቼኩ ለክፍያ በቀረበ ጊዜ በቂ ሂሳብ ያልነበረ እንደሆነ በቂ ስንቅ ሳይኖረው ባወጣው ሰው ላይ ቼኩ ቀጥተኛ የሰነድ ማስረጃ ሲሆን ውሉ ደግሞ በቼኩ ፍሬ ነገር ላይ ቀጥተኛ ያልሆነ ማስረጃ ነው፡፡

4.የማስረጃ ተገቢነት መስፈርቶች(የማስረጃ መርሆዎች)

ማስረጃ በህግ ፊት ተቀባይነት እንዲኖረው ሶስት ዋናዋና ነጥቦችን  ማሟላትአለበት፡፡ እነኚህም ነጥቦች፡-

.ከጉደዩ ጋር ግንኙነት ያለው (Relevance)

አንድን ፍሬ ነገር እንዲያስረዳ የሚቀርብ ማንኛውም ማስረጃ ከተያዘው ጉዳይ ወይም እንዲያስረዳ ከታሰበለት ፍሬ ነገር ጋር በቀጥታም ሆነ በተዘዋዋሪ ግንኙነት ሊኖረው የተገባ ነው፡፡ከጉዳዩ ጋር በየትኛውም መልኩ ተያያዥነት የሌለው ማስረጃ በህግ ፊት ዋጋ አይኖረውም፡፡

.ተዓማኒነት (Reliable)

ማንኛውም ሰው በወንጀል ክስ ተመስርቶበት ሊቀጣ የሚችለው በቂ ማስረጃዎች ቀርበው ሲገኙ ነው፡፡እነኚ ማስረጃዎች በበቂ ከማስረዳት አቅማቸው በተጨማሪ የሚታመኑ መሆን አለባቸው፡፡በየትኛውም ግለሰብ ጤነኛ አስተሳሰብ ሊታመን የማይችል ማስረጃ በማስረጃነት ሊቀርብ አይችልም፡፡የጉዳዩን አፈጻጸም ተመልክተናል የሚሉ ምስክሮች የሚገልጹት መረጃ ድርጊቱ ስለመፈጸሙ እምነት እንድንጥልበት የሚያደርጉን መሆን አለባቸው፡፡ለምሳሌ አንድን ሞተር ብስክሌት ሰርቋል በሚል  የጠመሰከረበት የ12 አመት ህጻንበሚቀርብበት ጊዜ ይህን ማስረጃ የሠጠው ምስክር ቃል ተዓማኒነቱ መመርመር አለበት፡፡ይህውምተወሰደ የተባለውን ሞተር ሳይክል ወደ ቦታው በመመለስ እያሽከረከረም ሆነ እየገፋ እንዲወስድ በማድረግ ዕውነትም ድርጊቱን ሊፈጽም የሚችል ሰው መሆኑን መገንዘብ እንችላለን፡፡በመሆኑም እቃውን ሲወስድ አይተናል የሚሉት ሰዎች ቃል ተዓማኒነት ላይኖረው ይችላል ማለት ነው፡፡ይህ በምርመራ የሚጣራ ጉዳይ ነው፡፡አንድ አንድ ጊዜ በእድሜ ወይም በጤንነት የማይጠየቁ ሰዎች ይህን ጥበቃ ምክንያት በማድረግ ሌላውን ከህግ ተጠያቂነት ለማዳን በማሰብ ያልፈጸሙትን ወንጀል ፈጽሜያለው በማለት ቃል ሊሰጡም ይችላሉ፡፡

.በህጋዊ መንገድ የተገኘ ማስረጃ (Admissablity)

ማስረጃዎች በምን አግባብ መሰብሰብ እንዳለባቸው የስነስርዓት ህጋችን በግልጽ ይደነግጋል፡፡በመሆኑም ህጉ ከሚደነግገው ወይም ግዴታ ካደረገው የምርመራ ስራ አፈጻጸም ውጪ ማስረጃን መሰብሰብ የማስረጃውን ተቀባይነት ያስቀረዋል፡፡ለምሳሌ መርማሪው ህገ ምንግስቱ በአንቀጽ 19(2) ስር የወንጀለኛ መቅጫ ህግ ስነስርዓት ህጉ በአንቀጽ 27(2) ስር በግልጽ ያስቀመጣቸውን ድንጋጌዎች በመጣስ ቃልን የተቀበለ እንደሆነ፣ ምስክሮችን የደለለ፣በማስፈራራት እና በሀይል ቃል እንዲሰጡ ያደረገ፣ያለ ፍርድ ቤት ትዕዛዝ የሰዎችን ቤት የበረበረ እና ዕቃ የያዘ እና የመሳሰሉትን ተግባራት የፈጸመ እንደሆነ በዚህ መንገድ የሠበሰበው ማስረጃ በህጋዊ መንገድ የተገኘ ባለመሆኑ ምክንያት በህግ ፊት ተቀባይነት አይኖረውም፡፡

በመሆኑም አንድ ማስረጃ በህግ ፊት ተቀባይነት ኖሮት ማንኛውም ማስረጃ በወንጀል ፍትህ አስተዳደር ውስጥ ሊጫወት የሚገባውን ሚና ይጫወት ዘንድ ከላይ የጠቀስኳቸው ነጥቦች በሚገባ ማሟላት አለበት፡፡  

4.ስለ ማስረጃ አሰባሰብ

ከላይ የማስረጃን ምንነት፣ አስፈላጊነት እና አይነት ተመልክተናል፡፡በዚህ ርዕስ ስር ደግሞ እነኚ ማስረጃዎች እንዴት ሊሰበሰቡ እንደሚገባቸው እንመለከታለን፡፡በመሰረቱ ማስረጃዎች የሚሰበሰቡት  የወንጀለኛ መቅጫ ህግ ስነ ስርዓት ባስቀመጠው ስነስርዓታዊ የህግ አግባብ መሰረት የምርመራ ስራን በሚያከናውን መርማሪ ፖሊስ አማካኝነት ነው፡፡ይህ የምርመራ ባለሙያ በተለያዩ መነሻ ምክንያቶች ምርመራን ሊያከናውን ይችላል፡፡ይህም በተበዳዩ የግል አቤቱታ አቅራቢነት የሚያስቀጡ ወንሎችን በተመለከተ የግል ተበዳይ አቤቱታውን በወ/ል ህጉ አንቀጽ 212 መሰረት ሲያቀርብ፣ በክስ አቅራቢነት የሚያስቀጡ ወንጀሎችን በተመለከተ ማንኛውም ሰው ወይም እራሱ ወይም ሌላ ማንኛውም የፖሊስ አባል በሰጠው ጥቆማ ወይም ባቀረበው ክስ መሰረት ወንጀል ስለመፈጸሙ በቂ ጥርጣሬ ሲኖረው ነው፡፡በሌላ በኩል በአሁኑ ጊዜ ፖሊስ ከዐ/ህግ ጋር በመሆን ወንጀልን በጋራ የሚያጣሩ በመሆኑ አቤቱታ ወይም ክስ ከቀረበ በኋላ ጉዳዩ የወንጀል ፍሬ ነገር ከሌለው እና ይልቁንም ጉዳዩ ፍትሃብሄር ከሆነ ወይም አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔን ብቻ የሚጠይቅ እንደሆነ ምርመራ እንዲጀመር ከመወሰን ይልቅ ወደሚመለከተው አካል ሊመራቸው ወይም አስተያየት በመስጠት ሊያሰናብታቸው ይገባል፡፡ነገር ግን ጉዳዩ በወንጀል ህጋችንም ሆነ በተለያዩ አዋጆቻችን መሰረት የሚያስቀጣ የወንጀል ተግባር የሆነ እንደሆነ ምርመራ እንዲካሄድ ይወስናሉ፡፡

መርማሪው በዚህ መሰረት አቤቱታ ወይም ክስ ከተቀበለ በኋላ ቀጣዩ ስራ የሚሆነው አቤቱታው ወይም ክሱ የቀረበበት ጉዳይ ወይም ፍሬ ነገር እውነት የተፈጸመ ስለመሆኑ ወይም የመደምደሚያውን ትክክለኛነት የሚያስረዱ የሰው የምስክርነት ማስረጃዎችን፣ የሰነድ እና ገላጭ ማስረጃዎችን ማሰባሰብ ነው፡፡ይህ የማስረጃ አሰባሰብ መካከለኛ እና ከባድ በሆኑ ወንጀሎች ላይ የሚፈጸም ከሆነ በእቅድ መመራት እንደሚገባው ማወቅ ተገቢ ነው፡፡ምክንያቱም የምርመራ ስራው ቅደም ተከተል መዛባት እና በዘፈቀደ መሰራት ሊጠፉ የማይገቡ መሰረታዊ ማስረጃዎችን ሊያሳጣ የሚችል በመሆኑ ነው፡፡

.የምስክርነት ማስረጃ አሰባሰብ

ፖሊስ የወንጀል ምርመራውን ፍሬ ነገሮች ሊያስረዱለት ከሚችሉ ማስረጃዎች አንዱ እና በስፋት ጥቅም ላይ የሚውለው የምስክርነት ማስረጃ ነው፡፡በመሆኑም ፖሊስ ከዐቃቤ ህግ ጋር በጋራ በመሆን የወንጀለኛ መቅጫ ህግ ስነ ስርዓት አንቀጽ 30 መሰረት የግል ተበዳዩን ጨምሮ ወንጀሉ ተፈጽሟል በተባለበት እና ከወንጀል መፈጸም በኋላ ድርጊት ፈጻሚው ባለፈባቸው ወይም የወንጀል ተግባሩን በቀጠለባቸው ስፍራዎች ሆሉ ስለ ድርጊቱ በቀጥታም ሆነ በተዘዋዋሪ ሊያውቁ ይችላሉ ብሎ እምነት የጣለባቸውን ሰዎች ወይም ሙያዊ የምስክነት ቃል ሊሰጡ ይገባል ያላቸውን ባለሙያዎች በመጥራት ሊመረምራቸው ይችላል፡፡ ጥሪ የተደረገላቸው ሰዎችም በአካል ቀርበው ትክክለኛውን ወይም እውነቱን የመናገር ግዴታ አለባቸው፡፡በመሆኑም ቅደም ተከተሉን በጠበቀ መልኩ ተገቢውን ጥያቄ በመጠየቅ የሚሰጡትን ምላሽ በጽሁፍ በማስፈር ሊይዝ ይገባል፡፡በሂደቱም ከምስክሩ መረጃን ለማግኘት በማሰብ መደለል ፣ የተስፋ ቃል መስጠት፣ ማስፈራራት እና ሀይል መጠቀም የተከለከለ ነው፡፡በዚህ መንገድ የተገኘ ማስረጃም ተቀባይት የለውም ፡፡በተጨማሪም ምስክሩ ፖሊስ ለሚጠይቀው ጥያቄ መልስ የሚሰጥ ከሆነ እራሱን ተጠያቂ ሊያደርግ የሚችል ሲሆን ጥያቄውን አልመልስም የማለት መብት ያለው ስለመሆኑ ስነ ስርዓት ህጉ በአንቀጽ 30(2) ስር አስፍሮታል፡፡በመሆኑም መርማሪ ፖሊስም ይህንን መብት ሊያከብርለት ይገባል፡፡ይሁንና ይህ መብት በህግ በግልጽ ከተከለከለ መልስ ለመስጠት የሚገደድ ሲሆን በእምቢተኛነቱ ከጸና ወንጀልን አለማስታወቅ እንዲሁም ለመንግስት ስራ ትብብር ባለማድረግ ወንጀል ሊጠየቅ ይችላል፡፡ለምሳሌ በህገ ወጥ መንገድ ሰዎችን ማዘዋወር እና ስደተኞችን በህገ ወጥ መንገድ ድንበር ማሻገር አዋጅ ቁጥር 909/2007 መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡

 ለመካከለኛ እና ከባድ በሆኑ ወንጀሎች ላይ የሚደረግ የወንጀል ምርመራን በተመለከተ እንግሊዞች የሚጠቀሙትን ዘዴ እንመልከት፡፡

PEACE model

P-Preparation and planning (መዘጋጀት እና ማቀድ)

E-Engagement and explain (አቀራረብ እና መግለጽ)

A-Account (መጠይቆች)

C-Closure (መዝጊያ ወይም መደምደሚያ)

E-Evaluation (ቃለ መጠይቁን መመዘን)

መዘጋጀት እና ማቀድ-ፖሊስ ከዐ/ህግ ጋር በመሆን መካከለኛ እና ከባድ ወንጀሎችን በሚያጣራ ጊዜ የምርመራ ስራውን ከመጀመራቸው በፊት ምርመራውን በምን ሁኔታ፣ ጊዜ እና ቅደም ተከተል ሊያከናውኑት እንደሚገባ እቅድ መያዝ እና ለምርመራው የሚያስፈልጋቸውን ዘዴ፣ መሳርያ፣ ባለሙያ እና ቦታ ማዘጋጀት አለባቸው፡፡ይህም ቀድሞ በተሰበሰበው መረጃ መሰረት ከማን ምን እናገኛለን፣ ለማን ምን እንጠይቃለን፣ ተጠርጣሪው በየትኛው የምርመራ ደረጃ ላይ ሊያዝ ይገባል፣ ምርመራው የወ/ል ስፍራ ምርመራ የሚፈልግ ከሆነስ የማስረጃ ምንጮቹ በንፋስ፣በውሀ ወይም በሰው አማካኝነት ጉዳት ሳይደርስባቸው እና ህልውናቸውን ሳያጡ እንዲቆዩ ለማድረግ ምን እርምጃ መውሰድ አለብን፣ ከተጠርጣሪ የግል ባህሪ በማጥናት ያለ ስጋት በቁጥጥር ስር ማዋል ስለሚቻልበት ሁኔታ መዘጋጀት አለባቸው፡፡በዚህ መልኩ እቅድ እና ዝግጅት ተደርጎ የሚከናወን ምርመራ ምስክሮችን በተደጋጋሚ በመጥራት ከማሰልቸት፣ ጊዜን እና የመንግስት ወጪን ይቆጥባል፡፡

አቀራረብ እና ገለጻ-ምስክሮች በአዕምሯቸው አያሌ ጉዳዮችን ይዘው ነው የሚመጡት፡፡ከነኚህ ጉዳዮች የተወሰኑቱ ተከሳሹ ላይ መስክሬ ማስቀጣቴ ምን ይረባኛል የሚል ተገቢ ያልሆነ አስተሳሰብ፣ ዛሬ የምመሰክርበት ከሆነ ከእስር ሲወጣ ይበቀለኛል የሚል ስጋት፣ ምስክርነት ቃሌን ከሰጠው በተደጋጋሚ ልጠራ እና ከግል ኑሮዬ ላይ ልስተጓጎል እችላለው የሚል እና የመሳሰሉት ናቸው፡፡በመሆኑም ምስክሩ ከነዚህ አስተሳሰቦች እና ስጋቶች መጽዳት አለበት፡፡ይህን ከማድረግ አንጻር ፖሊስ በተቻለው ሁሉ እነኚ ስጋቶች የማይከሰቱ ስለመሆናቸው  ሊያስረዳው እና ዋስትና ሊሰጠው እንዲሁም በእርግጥም ችግሮቹ እንዳያጋጥሙ ሊጥር ይገባል፡፡ለምሳሌ ከስጋት አንጻር መንግስት ለምስክሮች እና ጠቋሚዎች ጥበቃ የሚያደርግበት አዋጅ ያለው መሆኑን መግለጽ ቢቻል ጥሩ ነው፡፡

ሌላኛው ነጥብ ምስክሮችን ቀለል ባለ አቀራረብ መቅረብ እና ወደ ጉዳዩ ከመግባቱ በፊትም ጠቅለል ስላለ ማህበራዊ ጉዳይ አንስቶ ለተወሰኑ ደቂቃዎች ማውራት እና በዘዴ ወደ ዋናው ጉዳይ መግባት የተሻለ ነው፡፡ይህ ከሆነ አንድም  ከምስክሩ ግላዊ ህይወት እና ከተጠርጣሪ እና ከተበዳይ ጋር ስላለው ቀረቤታ፣ ከጉዳዩ ጋር ስላለው ግንኙነት እንዴት ስለጉዳዩ ሊያውቅ እንደቻለ ለማጣራት የሚረዳ ሲሆን በሌላ በኩል ምስክሩ ሳይፈራ እና ሳይደናገጥ የሚውቀውን ሁሉ እንዲገልጽ ለማድረግ የሚያስችል መንገድ ነው፡፡ በመቀጠልም ስለ ክሱ ይዘት ማብራራት እና ከሱ ምን እንደሚፈለግ መግለጽ ይጠበቅበታል፡፡ የአገላለጽ ሁኔታው ጥንቃቄ ሊደረግበት ይገባል፡፡ምክንያቱም የምርመራ ስራውን ሊያደናቅፍም ይችላል እና ነው፡፡

የምስክርነት ማስረጃ በማሰባሰብ ስራ ውስጥ ትልቁ እና ዋነኛው ጥንቃቄ ሊደረግበት የሚገባ ጉዳይ የተሰጠው የምስክርነት ቃል በእውነት ላይ የተመሰረተ እና ማንንም ለመጉዳት ወይም ለመጥቀም ታስቦ ያልተሰጠ መሆኑን መረጋገጥ አለበት፡፡ምክንያቱም ምስክሩ በጉርሻ ተደልሎ፣ እራሱን፣ ዘመዱን፣ጓደኛውን፣ቤተሰቡን…ከተጠያቂነት ለማዳን፣ ከዚህ በፊት ከተከሳሽ ጋር በነበረው ቅራኔ ሊጎዳው ወይም ሊበቀለው በማሰብ እና በመሰሰሉት ምክንያቶች ሀሰተኛ ምስክርነት ሊሰጥ ይችላል፡፡በዚህ ረገድ ፖሊስ ምስክሩ እየሰጠ ያለው ቃል ከላይ ከጠቀስነው ችግር የጸዳ ስለመሆኑ በሚገባ የማጣራት ግዴታ አለበት፡፡ቃልን ከመቀበል በዘለለ ፖሊስ ምስክሩን ሊመረምረው ነው የሚገባው፡፡ ምክንያቱም በወንጀለኛ መቅጫ ስነ ስርዓት ህጉ አንቀጽ 30 ፖሊስ ስለሚያደርገው የምስክሮች ምርመራ ነው የሚያትተው፡፡የእንግሊዝኛውንም ቅጂ ብንመለከት Examination of witness by police ሲል ርዕስ ሰጥቶታል፡፡በመሆኑም ምስክሩ የሚሰጠውን ቃል ብቻ በጽሁፍ ከማስፈር ይልቅ ምስክሩ እየገለጸ ያለው ፍሬ ነገር እውነትነት ያለው ስለመሆኑ መመርመር አለበት፡፡

5.የምስክሩ ግዴታ

ሰዎች ምርመራ ለሚያከናውነው የፖሊስ አባል የሚሰጡት የምስክርነት ማስረጃ በትክክል ስለተመለከቱት ፣ ስለሰሙት፣ በቅምሻ፣ በማሽተት፣ በመዳሰስ ስለተገነዘቡት ጉዳይ እውነት የሆነን እና ከሀሰት የራቀን መረጃ መሆን ይጠበቅበታል፡፡ምክንቱም በሀሰት በሰጡት የምስክርነት ማስረጃ ነጻነቱ ሊረጋገጥለት ይገባ የነበረን ወንጀል ያልፈጸመ ሰው ለእስር የመዳረግ አሉታዊ ተጽዕኖ ያለው ከመሆኑ በዘለለ ማስረጃውን የሰጠው ሰው በዚህ ድርጊቱ ፍትህ እንዲዛባ ያደረገ እንደሆነ በወንጀል የሚጠየቅ መሆኑን ህጉ ይደነግጋል፡፡

መጠየቅ-ፖሊስ በመጀመርያ ደረጃን ምስክሩን መሪ ጥያቄ ሊጠይቀው አይገባም፡፡ የሚያቀርበው ጥያቄ በማብራርያ ሊመለሱ የሚገባቸው ጥያቆዎች ቢሆኑ ይመረጣሉ፡፡ግልጽ ያልሆኑ ያልተነኩ እና ሊመለሱ የሚገባቸው ጥያቄዎች ሲኖሩ በመጨረሻ በመሪ ጥያቄዎች ማጣራት ቢቻል ጥሩ ነው፡፡

ቀሪ ሁለቱ ክፍሎች ማጠቃለል እና ምዛና ወይም መለካት ናቸው፡፡

በዚህ መንገድ ምስክሩን በሚገባ ተጠይቆ የሚሰጠው ማስረጃ ከምረመራ መዝገቡ ጋር ተያይዞ መቀመጥ አለበት፡፡በተለይም ለምስክሩ ሊቀርብለት የሚገባው ጥያቄ የወንጀሉን ፍሬ ነገር ሊያረጋግጥ በሚያስችል መንገድ መሆን አለበት፡፡መቼ፣እንዴት፣ማን፣ ምን፣ በምን፣ለምን፣የቱ…፡፡የሚያውቀውን እንጂ እንዲናገር የምንፈልገውን እንዲገልጽልን መጠበቅ የለብንም

.የሰነድ ማስረጃዎች አሰባሰብ

ሰነድ ማስረጃዎች ከመንግስታዊ እና መንግስታዊ ካልሆኑ ተቋማት፣ከግል የንግድ ድርጅቶች፣ ከመንግስት ልማት ድርጅቶች፣  ከህክምና ተቋማት፣ ከፌደራል ፖሊስ የፎረንሲክ ምርመራ ዘርፍ፣ ከጥራት እና ደረጃዎች ባለስልጣን፣ ከትምህርት ተቋማት፣ ከባንክ እና ኢንሹራንስ ተቋማት ከግለሰቦች እጅ እና ከመሳሰሉት ሊሰበሰብ ወይም ሊገኝ ይችላል፡፡በመሆኑም ፖሊስ እነኚህን መረጃዎች በጥንቃቄ ሊሰበስብ እና ሊይዝ ይገባል፡፡ከጥንቃቄዎቹ መካከል ዋነኞቹ የሚሰበስበው ሰነድ በምርመራው ከተያዘው ጭብጥ ወይም ሊረጋገጥ ከታሰበው ፍሬ ነገር ጋር በቀጥታም ሆነ በተዘዋዋሪ ግንኙነት ያለው፣ አሰባሰቡም የስነስርዓት ህጉ በሚያስቀምጠው መንገድ እና የሰዎችን ህገ መንግስታዊ መብቶች ባከበረ መልኩ ሊሆን ይገባል (ህገ መንግስቱ አንቀጽ 26)፣ ማስረጃዎቹ ህጋዊ መሆናቸውን ማረጋገጥም አለበት፡፡

እነኚህ ሰነዶች የአንድን ሰው ማንነት፣ ያለውን የሙያ ብቃት እና ፍቃድ፣ የደረሰን የአካል ጉዳት ወይም ሞት እና ምክንያቱን፣ የአሳት ቃጠሎን መንስኤ፣ በባንክ ሂሳብ ውስጥ ያለን የገንዘብ መጠን፣ የምርትን የጥራት ደረጃ፣ የገንዘብ ጉድለትን የሚያሳይ የኦዲት ሪፖርት፣ ስለ ስራ ቅጥር እና ስንብት እና የመሳሰሉት ውሳኔዎች የሚያመላክቱነ የተለያዩ ኦፊሴላዊ ደብዳቤዎችን ወዘተ የሚያመላክቱ ናቸው፡፡ፍ/ቤትም እነኚ ሰነዶች የሚቀርቡለት ተመልክቷቸው ግንዛቤ እንዲወስድባቸው ነው፡፡ሌላኛው የሰዎችን እንቅስቃሴ ቀርጾ በማህደር ሊያቆይ የሚችል የስውር ካሜራ ጥቅም ላይ ውሎም ከሆነ ይህው ካሜራ የያዘውን ተንቀሳቃሽ ምስል በሰነድ ማስረጃነት መያዝ ምርመራውን ውጤታማ ያደርገዋል፡፡

አንዳንድ የወንጀል ጉዳዮች የሰነድ ማስረጃን በዋናነት መሰረት የሚያደርጉ ናቸው፡፡እነኚህን ወንጀሎች መርምሮ ፍርድ ሰጪው አካል ዘንድ ለማቅረብ እና ፍርድ ለማሰጠት የሰነዶቹ መቅረብ ወሳኝ ጉዳይ ይሆናል፡፡በሌላ በኩል የፈጸመው ተግባር በወንጀል እንደሚያስጠይቀው የሚያውቅ ወይም የገመተ ሰው ማስረጃዎቹን ሊያጠፋ እና ፖሊስ እንዳያገኛቸው ሊያደርግ ይችላል፡፡በመሆኑም ፖሊስ ልዩ ትኩረት በመስጠት ማስረጃዎቹ ወደሚገኙበት ስፍራ በፍጥነት በመሄድ ሊይዛቸው እና ሊጠብቃቸው ይገባል፡፡

ሌላኛው በሰነድ ማስረጃነት የሚቀርበው ማስረጃ ተከሳሽ በጣብያ የሚሰጠው የተከሰሽነት ቃል ነው፡፡ለዚህም የወንጀለኛ መቅጫ ስነ ስርዓት ህጉን አንቀጽ 27(2)ን መመልከት በቂ ነው፡፡በዚህ ድንጋጌ ስር ተከሳሹ ቃሉን ለመስጠት የማይገደድ ሲሆን ነገር ግን ያለምንም ጫና ወይም ተጽዕኖ በግል ፍቃደኝነቱ የሚሰጠው ቃል በማስረጃነት የሚቀርብበት መሆኑን ይደነግጋል፡፡በዚህ ረገድ ፖለስ የግለሰቦችን ህገ መንግስታዊ መብት ከማክበር አንጻር ተጠርጣሪውን እንዲናገር ወይም እንዲያምን በማንኛውም መንገድ ማስገደድ የለበትም፡፡በዚህ መንገድ የተገኘ የተከሳሽ ቃልም ተቀባይነት አይኖረውም፡፡ይልቁንም ፖሊስ ተጠርጣሪው ለተጠየቀው ጥያቄ ምላሽ ያለመስጠት ወይም ያለመናገር መብት ያለው ስለመሆኑ  ቃሉን እየሰጠ ላለው ተከሳሽ በሚረዳው ቋንቋ ሊገልጽለት ይገባል፡፡የኢፌዲሪ ህገ መንግስትም በአንቀጽ 19(2) ስር ይህንኑ የተከሳሽን መብት እና የፖሊስን ግዴታ አጣምሮ በግልጽ ይደነግጋል፡፡  

.የገላጭ ማስረጃዎች አሰባሰብ

የገላጭ ማስረጃዎችን ምንነት ከላይ ተመልክተናል፡፡እነኚህን ማስረጃዎች የወንጀል ድርጊቱ ከተፈጸመበት ስፍራ፣ ድርጊቱን በፈጸመው ሰው እጅ ላይ፣ በወንጀል የተገኘው ፍሬ ከተቀመጠበት ወይም ከተደበቀበት ስፍራ፣ እና ከመሳሰሉት ቦታ የምናገኛቸው ተጠርጣሪው ወንጀልን ለመፈጸም የተጠቀመባቸው ወይም በፈጸመው ወንጀል ምክንያት እጁ የገባ/የገቡ ንብረት/ቶች ናቸው፡፡ ፖሊስ እነኚህን ማስረጃዎች በተለያዩ መንገዶች ሊይዝ ይችላል፡፡የመጀመርያው መንገድ ከፍርድ ቤት በተገኘ የብርበራ ማዘዣ መሰረት ሲሆን ፖሊስ አንድ ሰው ወንጀል ስለመፈጸሙ እና ለዚሁ ወንጀል ማስረጃነት የሚውል ነገር ወይም እቃ በቤቱ ውስጥ ደብቋል ወይም አስቀምጧል ብሉ በበቂ ሲጠረጥር ከፍርድ ቤት የብርበራ ማዘዣ በማውጣት የተባለውን ቤት፣ የንግድ ስፍራ፣ ቅጥር ጊቢ፣ የእርሻ ስፍራ፣ተሸከርካሪ፣ መርከብ፣ አውሮፕላን እና የመሳሰሉትን ማስረጃውን ሊደበቅበት ወይም ሊቀመጥበት ይችላል ተብሎ የተጠረጠረውን ስፍራ ሁሉ መበርበር ይችላል፡፡

የብርበራ ማዘዣው የሚበረበረውን እና የሚያዘውን ማስረጃ ምንነት መግለጽ ወይም ማመላከት አለበት፡፡በመሆኑም ፖሊስ በብርበራው ማዘዣ ላይ ከተጠቀሰው ዕቃ ውጪ መበርበርም ሆነ መያዝ አይችልም፡፡ይልቁንም በማዘዣው ላይ በተመለከተው መሰረት የያዛቸውን ነገሮች ወይም ዕቃዎች ዝርዝር ገለልተኛ የሆኑ ሰዎች እንዲታዘቡት ማድረግ አለበት፡፡እንዲሁም ፍርድ ቤት በልዩ ሁኔታ ካላዘዘ በስተቀር የብርበራውን ስራ ለማከናወን ፖሊስ ሊጠቀም የሚገባው የጊዜ ገደብ በስነ ስርዓት ህጉ ላይ በተጠቀሰው መሰረት ከጠዋቱ 12፡00 ኣስከ ምሽቱ 12፡00 መሆን አለበት፡፡

በመሆኑም ማንኛውም ሰው ፖሊስ ቤቱን ለመበርበር እና በቤቱ ውስጥ የሚገኘውን ማስረጃ ለመያዝ መምጣቱን ሲገልጽለት ይህን ለማድረግ የሚያስችለው የፍርድ ቤት ትዕዛዝ የያዘ ስለመሆኑ መጠየቅ እና ያልያዘ ከሆነም ማዘዣውን ማቅረብ ካልቻለ በስተቀር በቤቱ ውስጥ ገብቶ መበርበር እንደማይችል ሊገልጽለት እና እንዳይገባ ሊከለክለው ይችላል፡፡ይህ የሚሆነው በልዩ ሁኔታ ያለ ፍርድ ቤት ትዕዛዝ ማስረጃን ለመያዝ የሚያስችለው የህግ መሰረት የሌለ እንደሆነ ነው፡፡

ሌላኛው ያለ ፍርድ ቤት ትዕዛዝ ማስረጃን መበርበር እና መያዝ ነው(search with out warrant)፡፡ከላይ እንደተመለከትነው በብርበራ ስራ ማስረጃን ለማሰባሰብ ከፍርድ ቤት የተገኘ የብርበራ ማዘዣ መቅረብ አለበት፡፡ይሁንና በልዩ ሁኔታ ፖሊስ ይህን ትዕዛዝ መያዝ ሳያስፈልገው ማንኛውም ቤትን ለመበርበር እና ማስረጃዎችን ለመያዝ የሚችልበት ሁኔታ አለ፡፡ይህም የመጀመርያው ወንጀል አድራጊው ወንጀሉን ሲፈጽም እጅ ከፍንጅ ከተያዘ ወይም ድርጊቱን ከፈጸመ በኋላ በሰዎች ክትትል ውስጥ ሆኖ ቤቱ ውስጥ ከገባ ወይም ማስረጃውን በቤቱ ውስጥ ካስቀመጠ ሲሆን ሌላኛው በወንጀል ህግ አንቀጽ 32(2) ለ ስር ባለው አግባብ ከሶስት ዓመት በላይ የሚያስቀጣ ወንጀል የፈጸመን ሰው በተመለተ በቀረበ ክስ ውስጥ በማስረጃነት ሊያገለግል የሚችል ዕቃ የተደበቀ ወይም የተቀመጠ መሆኑን በበቂ ከጠረጠረ ይሁንና ፖሊስ ከፍርድ ቤት የብርበራ ትዕዛዙን እስከሚያወጣ ድረስ ማስረጃው(እቃው) ከቦታው ሊነሳ ወይም ሊወሰድ ይችላል ብሎ ከጠረጠረ የፍርድ ቤት ማዘዣውን መያዝ ሳያስፈልገው ሊበረብር እና ሊይዝ ይችላል፡፡ከዚህ ውጪ በሆነ ማንኛውም ህግን መሰረት ያላደረገ የብርበራ ስራ የተሳተፈን የፖሊስ አባል በተመለከተ ማንኛውም ሰው ለሚመለከተው አካል በማስታወቅ ወይም በማመልከት ተገቢው የማጣራት ስራ እንዲሰራ እና እርምጃ እንዲወሰድ የማድረግ መብት አለው፡፡

እነኚህ ንብረቶች ፍርድ ቤት ጉዳዩን መርምሮ የመጨረሻ ውሳኔ አስኪሰጥ በመንግስት እጅ የሚቆዩ ሲሆኑ በስተመጨረሻ ለትክክለኛው ባለሀብት ወይም ባለይዞታ እንዲመለስ፣ ለመንግስት ገቢ እንዲሆን ወይም ድጋሚ አገልግሎት ላይ እንዳይውሉ ወይም እንዲወገዱ ሊወሰን የሚችልቸው ናቸው፡፡ገላጭ ማስረጃዎች እንደየባህሪያቸው ሊያዙ ይገባል፡፡ በቅድሚያ ግን እነኚ ቁሶች ቁጥር ተሰጥቷቸው በአይነት፣በብዛት እና በይዘት ተገልጸው ተጠያቂነትን በሚያሰፍን መልኩ መቀመጥ አለባቸው፡፡

ገላጭ ማስረጃዎች በቀላሉ ሊበላሹ የሚችሉ እንደ ፍራፍሬ እና ጥራጥሬ ያሉ ነገሮች ከሆኑ በመቆየታቸው ምክንያት ከአልግሎት ውጪ የሚሆኑ ከሆነ በፎቶ ግራፍ በማንሳት ወይም በምስል መቅረጽ በመቅረጽ በአስቸኳይ ተሽጠው ከሽያጩ የተገኘው ገንዘብ ጉዳዩ የመጨረሻ ውሳኔ እስከሚያገኝ ድረስ በባንክ እንዲቀመጥ ሊደረግ ይገባል(የኤግዚቢት አያያዝ እና አቆያየት ማንዋል)፡፡

6.ቤቱ የሚበረበርበት እና ማንኛውም ሰው ግዴታ

ማንኛውም ሰው የእለት ተእለት ኑሮውን ለመምራት በሚያደርገው እንቅስቃሴ ውስጥ የሌሎችን ሰላማዊም ሆነ የወንጀል እንቅስቃሴዎችን የመመልከት ወይም የመስማት እድል አለው፡፡ፖሊስም የወንጀል ምርመራ ስራውን ውጤታማ ለማድረግ የህዝብ ተሳትፎ ቁልፍ ሚና የሚጫወት በመሆኑ ማንኛውም ሰው በወንጀል ጉዳይ ማስረጃ ሊሆኑ የሚችሉ በህገወጥ መንገድ የተገኙ ማናቸውንም ቁሶች ሲደበቁ፣ ለሌላ ሰው ሲተላለፉ ወይም ሲሸሹ የተመለከተ እንደሆነ ለፖሊስ በመጠቆም ማስረጃውን ከመጥፋት እና ያለአግባብ የህገወጦች መበልጸጊያ ከመሆን የመጠበቅ ሀላፊነት አለበት፡፡በተጨማሪም ፖሊስ ማስረጃዎቹን ለማግኘት ዝግጅት ላይ መሆኑን ለተጠርጣሪው ከማሳወቅ መቆጠብ አለበት፡፡በሌላም በኩል ፖሊስ ብርበራውን በሚያከናውንበት ጊዜም ለስራው መፍቀድ እና ተገቢውን ትብብር ማድረግ ይጠበቅበታል፡፡ተገቢውን ትብብር ሲባል በርን ከፍቶ በፍቃደኝነት ከማስገባት የሚጀምር ሲሆን በተቃራኒው የብርበራ ስራውን በየትኛውም ምክንያት ለማደናቀፍ በማሰብ ተቃውሞ ከገጠመ ፖሊስ ብርበራውን ለማድረግ እስከሚችለበት ድረስ ሀይልን መጠቀም የሚችል ስለመሆኑ ስነስርዓት ህጉ ይደነግጋል፡፡                      

7.የወንጀል ስፍራ ምርመራ(crime scene investigation)

ፖሊስ በወንጀል ምርመራ ሂደት ውስጥ ማስረጃ ከሚሰበስብባቸው መንገዶች አንዱ የወንጀል ስፍራ ምርመራ ነው፡፡ይህ ምርመራ የሚከናወነው ወንጀል በተፈጸመበት ስፍራ ፖሊስ በአካል በመገኘት ማስረጃ በመሰብሰብ ነው፡፡የወንጀል ስፍራ ወንጀል የተፈጸመበትን መሬትን ፣የውሃ አካልን ፣ መርከብን፣ መኪናን፣ የደን ክልልን እና የመሳሰሉትን ሊያካትት ይችላል፡፡

የምርመራ ስራው የሚከናወነው በአብዛኛው ወንጀሉ በተፈጸመ ቅጽበት እንደመሆኑ መጠን የወንጀል ምርመራ ቡድኑ የመጀመርያ ስራ በድርጊቱ ጉዳት የደረሰባቸውን ሰዎች ለይቶ ማወቅ፣ መታደግ እና እንክብካቤ ወደሚያገኝበት ቦታ መውሰድ ሲሆን በሌላም በኩል ተጠርጣሪውን ከአከባቢው ሳይርቅ በቁጥጥር ስር ማዋል ነው፡፡ቀጥሎም በስፍራው የነበሩ እና ለምስክር ማስረጃነት የሚፈልጋቸውን በመለየት ማንነታቸውን መለየት፣ማስታወሻ መያዝ እና የሚቻል ሲሆን የምስክርነት ቃል መቀበል አለበት፡፡ ይህ ከተከናወነ በኋላ ማስረጃዎችን ለማሰባሰብ ይረዳል ተብሎ አስከሚታሰብበት የመሬት ስፋት ድረስ በመከለል ሰዎች ወደ ስፍራው እንዳይገቡ መከልከል እና ቀድሞ ውስጥ የነበሩ ሰዎችን ማንነት በሚገባ መለየት እና ማስታወሻ መያዝ ቀጣዩ ተግባር ነው፡፡ይህ የሚደረግበት ምክንያት አንድ አንድ ማስረጃዎች በባህርያቸው በሰዎች የእጅ እና እግር ንክኪ ሊበላሹ እና ድጋሚ ላይገኙ የሚችሉ(ለምሳሌ- እንደ ጣት አሻራ ያሉ የፎረንሲክ ምርመራ ናሙናዎች) በመሆናቸው እና በስፍራው የነበሩ ሰዎችም ከወንጀል ስፍራው ጋር ንክኪ ስለሚኖራቸው የማመሳከር ስራው ላይ አሻራቸው ሊገኝ የሚችል በመሆኑ ነው፡፡

በተለይም እንደ ህገ ወጥ የሰዎች ዝውውር እና ስደተኞችን በህገወጥ መንገድ ድንበር ማሻገር ወንጀል ያሉ ሰፊ የወንጀል ስፍራ ምርመራ የሚፈልጉ ወንጀሎች ማስረጃዎቹ ሊጠፉ የሚችሉበት እድል ሰፊ በመሆኑ የፎረንሲክ ምርመራ ባለሙያዎች ማስረጃዎችን ለመሰብሰብ የሚረዱትን መሳርያዎች በመያዝ ከወንጀል ምርመራ ፖሊስ አባሉ ጋር አብሮ መጓዝ እና ለምርመራ ስራ ግብዓትነት የሚጠቅሙትን የማስረጃ ናሙናዎች መለየት እና መጠቆም እንዲሁም መሰብሰብ ያስፈልጋል፡፡ይህ ማስረጃ ሳይነሳ ቀርቶ ለህዝብ ክፍት ከሆነ በኋላ መልሶ ማግኘት የማይቻል በመሆኑ ባለሙያው ማስረጃዎቹን ወይም ናሙናዎቹን በእርግጠኝነት እና ምንም ባለማስቀረት ያነሳቸው ስመሆኑ ርግጠኛ መሆን አለበት፡፡

በፎረንሲክ ምርመራ ስራ ውስጥ ከወንጀል ስፍራ የሚገኝ ደም፣ ሽንት፣ የዘር ፈሳሽ፣ጸጉር እና የመሳሰሉት ማስረጃን ለማግኘት የሚጠቅሙን ናሙናዎች ናቸው፡፡ 

8.ከምህበረሰቡ ምን ይጠበቃል?

ወንጀል በተፈጸመባቸው አከባቢዎች ያሉ ማናቸውም ሰዎች ወንጀል መፈጸሙን እንደተመለከቱ ለፖሊስ አባል ማሳወቅ ያለበት ሲሆን ፖሊስ ወደ ስፍራው እስኪመጣ እና አስፈላጊ የሆኑ የማስረጃ ማሰባሰብ ስራዎችን እስኪያጠናቅቅ ድረስ ወንጀል ወደተሰራበት ግቢ እና ቤት ወይ ማንኛውም ስፍራ ለመግባት አለመሞከር እና ሌሎችም ወደዚህ ስፍራ እንዳይገቡ በመከልከል የበኩሉን ሚና ማበርከት አለበት፡፡ለአብነትም የንግድ ሱቁ ተሰብሮ ንብረቱ የተሰረቀበት ሰው ወይም ይህንኑ የተመለከተ ማንኛውም ሰው ወደ ሱቁ ከመግባት፣ የበሩን እጀታ እና አካል እንዲሁም በክፍሉ ውስጥ የሚገኙ ቁሳቁሶችን ከመንካት መቆጠብ አለበት፡፡ምክንያቱም ፖሊስ የሚፈልገውን ማስረጃ የማግኘት እድሉ እንዲጠብ የሚያደርግ በመሆኑ ነው፡፡በመሆኑም ከህብረተሰቡ የሚጠበቀው በአካል እና በህይወቱ እንዲሁም በንብረቱ ላይ ወይም እኚው ጉዳቶች በሌላ ሰው ላይ ደርሶ ሲመለከት፣ ማንኛውንም ወንጀል የተፈጸመ መሆኑን ሲያይ ወይም ሲጠረጥር የወንጀል መርማሪ ፖሊስ እንዲያውቀው ማድረግ እና አከባቢውን ከራስም ሆነ ከሌሎች ንክኪ መጠበቅ አለበት፡፡

ፖሊስም ሙያዊ የምርመራ ቴክኒክ በመጠቀም አስፈላጊውን ጥንቃቄ በማድረግ ተፈጸመ ለተባለው ወንጀል ማስረጃ በመሆን ፍርድ ቤት መቅረብ ይችላሉ፤የወንጀሉንም ፍሬ ነገር ያረጋግጣሉ ብሎ ያሰበውን የማስረጃ ምንጭ አጠቃልሎ ምንም ነገር አለማስቀረቱን እርግጠኛ በመሆን ይሰበስባል፣በጥንቃቄ ይይዛል፣ናሙናው ወይም አሻራው ወደሚመረመርበት ስፍራ በጥንቃቄ ያጓጉዛል፣ ምርመራው እንደተጠናቀቀም ውጤቱን በጽሁፍ ደግፎ ከምርመራ መዝገቡ ጋር ያያዛል፡፡በመቅድሙ ላይም ይህንኑ ማስፈር ይጠበቅበታል፡፡በተለይም የእሳት ቃጠሎ፣ የሰው ግድያ፣ የተከለከሉ ዕጾችን በግል መጠቀም እና/ወይም ማዟዟር፣ ህገ ወጥ የሠዎች ዝውውር እና የመሳሰሉት የፎረንሲክ ምርመራ የሚፈልጉ ወንጀሎች በዚህ መልኩ ሊመረመሩ ይገባል፡፡

በዚህ መሰረት በወንጀል ስፍራ ምርመራ ወቅት ለሞት የተዳረገ ሰው ካለ አስክሬኑ ወደ ሆስፒታል እንዲላክ በማድረግ እና ውጤቱን በመከታተል በማስረጃነት መያዝ አለበት፡፡በዚህም ረገድ የህክምና ባለሙያዎች ከተራ አካል ጉዳት አንስቶ እስከ ሞት ሊደርስ የሚችልን የጉዳት መጠን በገለልተኝነት በመመርመር የምርመራውን ውጤት ሚስጥራዊነቱን በጠበቀ መልኩ ለምርመራ ክፍሉ መላክ አለበት፡፡

9.የማስረጃ አቀራረብ

ከላይ ለመመልከት እንደሞከርነው ፖሊስ ከዐ/ህግ ጋር በጋራ በመሆን የማስረጃ ማሰባሰብ እና ምርመራ ስራ ካጠናቀቀ በኋላ ማስረጃዎቹን ይመዝናል፡፡በምዘናውም መሰረት የቀረበው ማስረጃ/ዎች በተከሳሹ ላይ ክስ ለመመስረት የማያስችል ከሆነ በቂ ማስረጃ ያልቀረበ መሆኑን በመጥቀስ በወ/መ/ስ/ስ/ህ ቁጥር 42(1) ሀ መሰረት መዝገቡን የሚዘጋ ሲሆን ነገር ግን ማስረጃው የተያዘውን ጭብጥ ፍሬ ነገር ለማረጋገጥ ይችላሉ ብሎ ሲያምን የተላለፈውን የህግ ድንጋጌ በመጥቀስ ክስ ይመሰርታል፡፡ቀጥሎም ክሱን ለመመልከት ስልጣኑ ላለው ፍርድ ቤት ይልካል፡፡

ዐ/ህግ ከክሱ ጋር አያይዞ ያቀረባቸውን የማስረጃ ዝርዝሮች በክርክር ወቅት የሚያቀርበው ተከሳሽ ክሱ ተነቦለት እና የመጀመርያ ደረጃ መቃወሚያ እና በመቃወሚያው ላይ ዐ/ህግ የሰጠውን መልስ ተከትሎ ፍርድ ቤቱ ብይን ሲሰጥ ክሱ እንዲቀጥል የወሰነ እንደሆነ እና የእምነት ክህደት ቃሉን ተጠይቆ በከፊልም ሆነ በሙሉ ክዶ የተከራከረ እንደሆነ ነው፡፡እዚ ላይ ልብ ልንል የሚገባው ጉዳይ ተከሳሽ የተከሰሰበትን አንድ ነጠላ ክስ በተመለከተ ከፊሉን ፍሬ ነገር አምኖ ሌላውን የካደ እንደሆነ ባመነው ላይ ውሳኔ ተሰጥቶ በካደው ላይ ደግሞ ምስክር ሊሰማ የማይቻል መሆኑን ነው፡፡ምክንያቱም ፍርድ ቤት ማስረጃ ማሰማት ሳያስፈልገው የጥፋተኛነት ውሳኔ ሊሰት የሚችለው ተከሳሹ የተከሰሰበትም ወንጀል ስለመፈጸሙ በሙሉ ያመነ እንደሆነ ነው ሲል የወንጀለኛ መቅጫ ስነ ስርዓት ህጉ በአንቀጽ 134(1) ስር ይደነግጋል፡፡

በዚህ አግባብ ተከሳሹ ክሱን የካደ ከሆነ የማስረዳት ሸክሙ የዐቃቤ ህጉ ይሆናል፡፡ምክንያቱም የመሰረተውን ክስ ፍሬ ነገር የማስረዳት እና የመደምደሚያውን ትክክለኝነት የማረጋገጥ ግዴታ አለበት፡፡የማስረዳት ሸክም ወደ ተከሳሹ ሊተላለፍ የሚችለው በመጀመርያ ዐ/ህጉ ባቀረበው ማስረጃ እንደ ክሱ እና በበቂ ማስረዳት የቻለ እንደሆነ ነው፡፡ይሁንና እንደ ሙስና(ምንጩ ያልታወቀ ገቢ) እና ህገ ወጥ የሰዎች ዝውውር እና ስደተኞችን በህገወጥ መንገድ ድንበር ማሻገር ያሉ ወንጀሎች ካላቸው ልዩ ባህሪ አንጻር ዐ/ህግ መሰረታዊ ፍሬ ነገሮችን(fundamental facts) አቅርቦ ማሳየት ከቻለ የማስረዳት ሸክሙ ወደ ተከሳሽ ይዞራል፡፡ለምሳሌ በአነስተኛ ወርሀዊ ደሞዝ የሚተዳደር የመንግስት ሰራተኛ ከፍተኛ ዋጋ ያለው ሀብት በእጁ ያደረገ እንደሆነ ዐ/ህግ ማስረዳት የሚጠበቅበት ተከሳሹ በወር የሚያገኘውን የደሞዝ ክፍያ መጠን እና በእጁ የተገኘውን የሀብት መጠን ነው፡፡ይህን ስንመለከት ዐ/ህጉ በሌሎች ወንጀሎች ላይ የሚጠበቅበትን በበቂ የማስረዳት ግዴት እንዲወጣ አይጠበቅበትም ማለት ነው፡፡በመሆኑም የማስረዳት ሸክሙ የተላለፈበት ተከሳሽ ንብረቱን ከየት እንዳመጣው ወይም እንዴት ሊያፈራው እንደቻለ የማስረዳት ግዴታ አለበት፡፡ዐ/ህግ ንብረቶቹን በህገ ወጥ መንገድ ማፍራቴን በበቂ አላስረዳምና በነጻ ልሰናበት ይገባል የሚል ጥያቄ ቢያቀርብ ተቀባይነት አይኖረውም ማለት ነው፡፡

ወደ መደበኛው የወንጀል አይነት የማስረጃ አቀራረብ ስርዓት ስንመለስ ዐ/ህግ ያቀረበውን ክስ ፍሬ ነገር የሚያስረዱለትን የምስክርነት፣ የሰነድ እና የገላጭ ማስረጃዎች ለፍርድ ቤቱ አቅርቦ ያሰማል ወይም ዕንዲመለከቱት ያደርጋል ፡፡በመሆኑም በምርመራ ወቅት የተሰበሰቡትን ማስረጃዎች እንደ አመቺነቱ ወይም ክሱን በተደራጀ እና በተሳሰረ ቅደም ተከተል ሊያስረዱለኝ ይችላሉ ብሎ ባሰበው መንገድ የማሰማት እና ገላጭ ማስረጃዎችም በችሎት ቀርበው ፍርድ ቤቱ እንዲመለከታቸው ማድረግ ያጠበቅበታል፡፡ገላጭ ማስረጃዎቹ ባላቸው ልዩ ባህሪ በችሎት መቅረብ የማይችሉ ከሆነ ምስላቸውን በፎቶግራፍ በማስደገፍ እንደሁም ከብዙ በጥቂቱ የማስረጃውን ናሙና በማስቀረብ ለፍርድ ቤቱ ያሳያል፡፡

እነኚህ ማስረጃዎች ቀርበው ግራ ቀኙ ከተከራከሩ በኋላ ማስረጃው በክሱ ውስጥ የተጠቀሱትን ፍሬ ነገሮች በበቂ ያስረዳ የሆነ እንደሆነ ተከሳሽ የመከላከያ ማስረጃውን አቅርቦ እንዲያሰማ እና ክሱን እንዲያስተባብል እንዲከላከል ብይን የተሰጠ መሆኑን ፍርድ ቤቱ ይገልጽለታል፡፡ተከሳሽም ዐ/ህግ የራሱን ምስክሮች ሲያሰማ የተጠቀመበትን የህግ ስነስርዓት በመጠቀም ማስረጃዎቹን አቅርቦ ያሰማል፡፡

ማጠቃለያ

v ማስረጃ ማለት ፍሬ ነገርን ወይም በጭብጥነት የተያዘን ጉዳይ መኖር አለመኖርን ውሳኔ በተመለከተ ውሳኔ ለሚሰጠው የዳኝነት አካል ለማሳመን በማሰብ የሚቀርብ መረጃ ነው

v በሌላ በኩል ከላይ ከጠቀስነው ዝርዝር ሀሳብ አንጻር በመረጃ እና በማስረጃ መካከል ያለ ልዩነት በውል መታወቅ አለበት          

v ክስ ከመመስረቱ በፊት በቂ እና ፍርድ ቤትን ሊያሳምን የሚችል ማስረጃ ማሰባሰብ ተገቢ እና ወሳኝ ጉዳይ ነው      

v ማስረጃ ፍሬ ነገሮች ሊያስረዳ የሚችል ከድርጊቱ ጋር በቀጥታም ሆነ ቀጥተኛ ባልሆነ መንገድ ተያያዥነት ያለው፣

v ማስረጃ በህጋዊ መንገድ የተገኘ እና ተጨባጭነት ያለው በቂ በወንጀል ጉዳይ የሚሰበሰቡ ማስረጃዎች በጭብጥነት የተያዘ ፍሬ ነገርን ለማስረዳት ከምንጠቀምበት ዘዴ አንጻር እና ማስረጃው ሊያስረዳው ከተያዘለት አላማ አንጻር በሚል በሁለት ዋና ዋና ባህርያት ከፋፍለን መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡ማስረጃ ሊኖር የተገባ ነው፡፡      

v ፍሬ ነገርን ለማስረዳት ከምንጠቀምበት ዘዴ አንጻር ማስረጃዎችን የሰው ምስክርነት፣ የሰነድ፣ የገላጭ በሚል ከፋፍለን መመልከት እንችላለን፡፡

v በሌላ መልኩ ማስረጃዎችን ቀጥተኛ ወይም ቀጥተኛ ያልሆነ በሚል  ሊከፋፈልም ይችላል፡፡    

v ምስክርነት ማለት ሰዎች በስሜት ህዋሳታቸው በመጠቀም የተረዱትን ነገር በአካል ወንጀልን ለሚመረምር አካል ወይም ለፍርድ ቤት በአካል በመቅረብ በንግግር የሚሰጡት ማስረጃ ነው፡፡

v ምስክሮች ስለሰሙት፣ በቅምሻ፣ በማሽተት፣ በመዳሰስ ስለተገነዘቡት ጉዳይ እውነት የሆነን እና ከሀሰት የራቀን መረጃ መስጠት ይጠበቅባቸዋል፡፡

v የሰነድ ማስረጃ ማንኛውም አይነት ጽሁፍ፣ምልክት፣ ስዕል ያለበት ወረቀት በአጠቃላይ በጽሁፍ የተገለጹ ማናቸውም ማስረጃዎች ወይም ድምጽ እና/ወይም  ምስል ተቀረጸበት ነገር ነው፡፡

v የሰነድ ማስረጃዎች የደረሰን የአካል ጉዳት ወይም ሞት እና ምክንያቱን፣ የአሳት ቃጠሎን መንስኤ፣ በባንክ ሂሳብ ውስጥ ያለን የገንዘብ መጠን፣ የምርትን የጥራት ደረጃ፣ የገንዘብ ጉድለትን የሚያሳይ የኦዲት ሪፖርት፣ ስለ ስራ ቅጥር እና ስንብት እና የመሳሰሉት ውሳኔዎች የሚያመላክቱነ የተለያዩ ኦፊሴላዊ ደብዳቤዎችን ወዘተ የሚያመላክቱ ናቸው፡፡

v እነኚ ማስረጃዎች በችሎት ክርክር ወቅት ከሳሽ እና ተከሳሽ ፍርድ ቤት ተመልክቶ  ግምት እንዲወስድበት  የሚያቀርቧቸው

v ተከሳሹ የወንጀል ድርጊቱን ለመፈጸም የተጠቀመበት መሳርያ፣ በፈጸመው ወንጀል ምክንያት በእጁ ወይም በሶስተኛ ወገን እጅ የተገኙ ንብረቶች በዚህ የማስረጃ አይነት ስር የሚወድቁ ናቸው፡፡

v ፖሊስ ክሱ የቀረበበት ጉዳይ ወይም ፍሬ ነገር እውነት የተፈጸመ ስለመሆኑ ወይም የመደምደሚያውን ትክክለኛነት የሚያስረዱ የሰው የምስክርነት ማስረጃዎችን፣ የሰነድ እና ገላጭ ማስረጃዎችን ማሰባሰብ ነው፡፡

v የወንጀል ስፍራ ምርመራ ወንጀል በተፈጸመበት ስፍራ ፖሊስ በአካል በመገኘት ማስረጃ የሚያሰባስቡት መንገድ ነው፡፡የወንጀል ስፍራ ወንጀል የተፈጸመበትን መሬትን ፣የውሃ አካልን ፣ መርከብን፣ መኪናን፣ የደን ክልልን እና የመሳሰሉትን ሊያካትት ይችላል፡፡

v ከማስረዳት ሸክም አንጻር ዐ/ህግ በመሰረተው ክስ ላይ ተከሳሽ ክዶ የተከራከረ እንደሆነ የተያዘውን ጭብጥ የማስረዳት ግዴታ አለበት፡፡ተከሳሽ የማስረዳት ሸክሙ የሚተላለፍበት ዐ/ህጉ እንደ ክሱ በበቂ ያስረዳ እንደሆነ ነው፡፡

v  ነገር ግን ከወንጀሉ ልዩ ባህሪ በመነሳት በህግ በግልጽ ሲወሰን የማስረዳት ሸክም ወደ ተከሳሹ ሊያልፍ ይችላል፡፡ዐ/ህግ የሚጠበቅበት መሰረታዊ ፍሬ ነገሮችን ማቅረብ ብቻ ይሆናል፡፡

v   

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