የአስተዳደር መንግስት እና የአስተዳደር ህግ ውልደት 


የአስተዳደር መንግስት እና የአስተዳደር ህግ ውልደት 

የአስተዳደር ህግ ግብና ተግባራት//የህጉ ምንጮች፣ /የተፈጻሚነቱ ወሰን

በ19ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን ገኖ የነበረው የነፃ ገበያ (laisse faire) ንድፈ ሀሳብ በዋነኛነት ውስን የመንግስት ጣልቃ ገብነትና ሰፊ የግለሶቦች ነፃነትን ያቀነቅናል፡፡a በዚሁ ንድፈ ሀሳብ መሰረት የመንግስት ሚና ህግና ስርዓት ከማስጠበቅና አገርን ከጠላት ወረራ ከመከላከል የዘለለ መሆን የለበትም፡፡ ምርጥ መንግስት ማለት በስሱ (በትንሹ) የሚገዛ መንግስት ማለት ነው፡ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ እንቅስቃሴዎችን መምራት፣ መቆጣጠርና መግራት እንደ መንግስት ኃላፊነት አይቆጠርም፡ሆኖም ነፃ የሆነው የገበያና የመንግስት ስርዓት እግረ መንገዱን ይዞ የመጣቸው አሉታዊ ውጤቶች በዋነኛነት ያረፉት በደካማውና ደሀው የህብረተሰብ ክፍል ጫንቃ ላይ ነበር፡፡ በሀብታምና ደሀ መካከል የተፈጠረው የሀብት ድልድል ልዩነት በእጅጉ እየሰፋ በመምጣቱ ሀብታም የበለጠ ሲበለፅግ ደሃው ግን ይባስ እየቆረቆዘ መሄድ ጀመረ፡፡ በአሠሪና ሠራተኛ መካከል የነበረው የመደራደር አቅም ልዩነት ታይቶ ለማይታወቅ የጉልበት ብዝበዛ ምክንያት ሆነ፡፡ እነዚህ ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ጠንቆች ለነፃ ገበያ ስርዓትና አስተሳሰብ ፈታኝ ሁኔታዎች ነበሩ፡ስለሆነም ለማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ጠንቆች መፍትሔ መስጠት የመንግስት ግዴታና ኃላፊነት የመሆኑ እውነታ ቀስ በቀስ እየተገለጠ መጣ፡፡b በተለይም የሁለተኛው የአለም ጦርነትን ተከትሎ የተከሰቱት ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ቀውሶች የመንግስት ጣልቃ ገብነት አስፈላጊነትን ከመቼውም ጊዜ በላይ በገሃድ አስረግጠዋል፡፡ መንግስት ኃላፊነቱን መወጣት የሚችለው ደግሞ አወቃቀሩና አደረጃጀቱ ሲገፉት የሚፍረከረክ ዓይነት ‘ልል’ ወይም ውስን መንግስት መሆኑ ቀርቶ ጡንቻው የዳበረና ስልጣኑ የሰፋ ጠንካራ መንግስት ሆኖ ሲገኝ እንደሆነ ሳይታለም የተፈታ ነው፡፡ ለማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ጠንቆች መፍትሔ መስጠት የመንግስት ግዴታ ነው ሲባል ሚናው ከተለመደው ስርዓትና ፀጥታ ማስከበር ባሻገር ሰፊና ውስብስብ አዎንታዊ ተግባራትን ወደ ማከናወን መሸጋገር እንደሆነ ልብ ይሏል፡፡በዚሁ መሰረት የመንግስት ሚና ቀስ በቀስ ከፖሊስነት (Police State) ወደ ማህበራዊ አገልግሎት አቅራቢነት ሊሸጋገር ችሏል፡፡ መንግስት በአገልግሎት አቅራቢነት ሚናው ውሀ፣ ጤና፣ ትምህርት፣ መንገድ ወዘተ የመሳሰሉ መሰረታዊ ፍላጐቶችን የማሟላት ኃላፊነት ተጥሎበታል፡፡ በተጨማሪ የኢኮኖሚ አቅጣጫውን ፈር ለማስያዝና ፍትሐዊ የሀብት ድልድል እንዲኖር እንዲሁም ለደካማው የህብረተሰብ ክፍል ጥበቃና ከለላ ለማድረግ በአጠቃላይ የነፃ ገበያን አሉታዊ ውጤቶችን ለመቀነስ ሰፊና ተከታታይ ቁጥጥርና ክትትል (Regulation) ያደርጋል፡፡ አዲሱ የማህበራዊ መንግስት አዲሱን አዎንታዊ ሚናውን በብቃትና ውጤታማ በሆነ መንገድ ይወጣ ዘንድ በዓይነትና በይዘት የጠንካራ ስልጣን ባለቤት ሊሆን የግድ የሚል ሀቅ ነው፡፡የስልጣን አስፈላጊነቱ አጠያያቂ አይደለም፡፡ ስልጣን በየጊዜው ወሰኑ፣ መጠኑና ቅርጹ እያደገና እየሰፋ በመጣ ቁጥር ግን የግለሰቦችን መብትና ነፃነት መንካቱ አይቀርም፡፡ የመንግስት ስልጣን እየተለጠጠ መሄድ አቅመቢስ ለሆነው ዜጋ የስጋት ምንጭ ነው፡፡ ፍፁም የሆነና ወደ ፍፁምነት የተጠጋ ስልጣን ወደ ህገ ወጥነትና የበዘፈቀደ ድርጊት የማምራት አደገኛ አዝማሚያ አለው፡:የአስተዳደር ህግ በየጊዜው እያደገ የመጣውን የመንግስት ‘ጡንቻ መፈርጠም’ በቅጡ ለመቆጣጠር በታሪክ ሂደት በተጓዳኝ የተፈጠረ የህግ መሳሪያ ነው፡፡ መንግስት ተግባራቱን ለማከናወን ፖሊሲ ቀርጾ፣ ህግ አውጥቶ በሚያስፈጽምበት ወቅት በስልጣን እና በፍትህ (የግለሰቦች ነፃነት) መካከል ቅራኔ መከሰቱ የማይቀር እውነታ ነው፡፡ ጥያቄው ቅራኔው እንዴት ይፈታል? ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ የዚህ ቅራኔ የራሱ ውጤት ሲሆን ቅራኔውን በአንፃራዊ መልኩ ለማስማማትና ለማጣጣም በታሪክ ሂደት ብቅ ያለ ተግባራዊ መሳሪያ ነው፡፡d የአስተዳደር ህግ በዕቅድ ታስቦ የተወለደ ሳይሆን በሁኔታዎች አስገዳጅነት የተፈጠረ ክስተት ነው፡፡ ህጉ በሁለት በጉልበት የማይመጣጠኑ ጐራዎች ማለትም በመንግስትና በግለሰብ መካከል ሚዛናዊነትንና ፍትሐዊነትን ለማስፈን ይጥራል፡፡የአስተዳደር ህግ መንግስት በተለይ ስራ አስፈፃሚውና የአስተዳደር አካላት በህግ ከተፈቀደላቸው የስልጣን ክልል አልፈው ህገ ወጥ ድርጊት እንዳይፈጽሙ ቁጥጥር የሚያደርግና ይህንንም የሚያረጋግጥ ህግ ነው፡፡e በዚህም የህግ የበላይነት እንዲሰፍንና የግለሰቦች ህገ መንግስታዊ መብቶች እንዳይሸራረፉና እንዳይጣሱ ከለላ በመስጠትf ቁልፍ ሚና ይጫወታል፡፡ በተጨማሪም በህግ ማዕቀፍ ውስጥ ያለው ስልጣን በአግባቡና ፍትሐዊ በሆነ መንገድ ለታለመለት ዓላማ ብቻ እንዲውል መሪ ደንቦችን በማስቀመጥና ስነ ስርዓታዊ ቅድመ ሁኔታዎችን በመዘርጋት የተለያዩ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልቶችን በመጠቀም የግለሰቦችና የዜጐች መብቶችና ነፃነቶች እንዳይገሰሱና እንዳይደፈሩ ከለላ በመስጠት የህገ መንግስት ማስፈፀሚያ ሆኖ ያገለግላል፡፡

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