የአስተዳደር መንግስት እና የአስተዳደር ህግ ውልደት


 የአስተዳደር መንግስት እና የአስተዳደር ህግ ውልደት

19ኛው ክፍለ ዘመን ገኖ የነበረው የነፃ ገበያ (laisse faire) ንድፈ ሀሳብ በዋነኛነት ውስን የመንግስት ጣልቃ ገብነትና ሰፊ የግለሶቦች ነፃነትን ያቀነቅናል፡፡ በዚሁ ንድፈ ሀሳብ መሰረት የመንግስት ሚና ህግና ስርዓት ከማስጠበቅና አገርን ከጠላት ወረራ ከመከላከል የዘለለ መሆን የለበትም፡፡ ምርጥ መንግስት ማለት በስሱ (በትንሹ) የሚገዛ መንግስት ማለት ነው፡፡ ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ እንቅስቃሴዎችን መምራት፣ መቆጣጠርና መግራት እንደ መንግስት ኃላፊነት አይቆጠርም፡፡ሆኖም ነፃ የሆነው የገበያና የመንግስት ስርዓት እግረ መንገዱን ይዞ የመጣቸው አሉታዊ ውጤቶች በዋነኛነት ያረፉት በደካማውና ደሀው የህብረተሰብ ክፍል ጫንቃ ላይ ነበር፡፡ በሀብታምና ደሀ መካከል የተፈጠረው የሀብት ድልድል ልዩነት በእጅጉ እየሰፋ በመምጣቱ ሀብታም የበለጠ ሲበለፅግ ደሃው ግን ይባስ እየቆረቆዘ መሄድ ጀመረ፡፡ በአሠሪና ሠራተኛ መካከል የነበረው የመደራደር አቅም ልዩነት ታይቶ ለማይታወቅ የጉልበት ብዝበዛ ምክንያት ሆነ፡፡ እነዚህ ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ጠንቆች ለነፃ ገበያ ስርዓትና አስተሳሰብ ፈታኝ ሁኔታዎች ነበሩ፡፡ስለሆነም ለማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ጠንቆች መፍትሔ መስጠት የመንግስት ግዴታና ኃላፊነት የመሆኑ እውነታ ቀስ በቀስ እየተገለጠ መጣ፡፡b በተለይም የሁለተኛው የአለም ጦርነትን ተከትሎ የተከሰቱት ማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ቀውሶች የመንግስት ጣልቃ ገብነት አስፈላጊነትን ከመቼውም ጊዜ በላይ በገሃድ አስረግጠዋል፡፡ መንግስት ኃላፊነቱን መወጣት የሚችለው ደግሞ አወቃቀሩና አደረጃጀቱ ሲገፉት የሚፍረከረክ ዓይነት ‘ልል’ ወይም ውስን መንግስት መሆኑ ቀርቶ ጡንቻው የዳበረና ስልጣኑ የሰፋ ጠንካራ መንግስት ሆኖ ሲገኝ እንደሆነ ሳይታለም የተፈታ ነው፡፡ ለማህበራዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ጠንቆች መፍትሔ መስጠት የመንግስት ግዴታ ነው ሲባል ሚናው ከተለመደው ስርዓትና ፀጥታ ማስከበር ባሻገር ሰፊና ውስብስብ አዎንታዊ ተግባራትን ወደ ማከናወን መሸጋገር እንደሆነ ልብ ይሏል፡፡በዚሁ መሰረት የመንግስት ሚና ቀስ በቀስ ከፖሊስነት (Police State) ወደ ማህበራዊ አገልግሎት አቅራቢነት ሊሸጋገር ችሏል፡፡ መንግስት በአገልግሎት አቅራቢነት ሚናው ውሀ፣ ጤና፣ ትምህርት፣ መንገድ ወዘተ የመሳሰሉ መሰረታዊ ፍላጐቶችን የማሟላት ኃላፊነት ተጥሎበታል፡፡ በተጨማሪ የኢኮኖሚ አቅጣጫውን ፈር ለማስያዝና ፍትሐዊ የሀብት ድልድል እንዲኖር እንዲሁም ለደካማው የህብረተሰብ ክፍል ጥበቃና ከለላ ለማድረግ በአጠቃላይ የነፃ ገበያን አሉታዊ ውጤቶችን ለመቀነስ ሰፊና ተከታታይ ቁጥጥርና ክትትል (Regulation) ያደርጋል፡፡ አዲሱ የማህበራዊ መንግስት አዲሱን አዎንታዊ ሚናውን በብቃትና ውጤታማ በሆነ መንገድ ይወጣ ዘንድ በዓይነትና በይዘት የጠንካራ ስልጣን ባለቤት ሊሆን የግድ የሚል ሀቅ ነው፡፡cየስልጣን አስፈላጊነቱ አጠያያቂ አይደለም፡፡ ስልጣን በየጊዜው ወሰኑ፣ መጠኑና ቅርጹ እያደገና እየሰፋ በመጣ ቁጥር ግን የግለሰቦችን መብትና ነፃነት መንካቱ አይቀርም፡፡ የመንግስት ስልጣን እየተለጠጠ መሄድ አቅመቢስ ለሆነው ዜጋ የስጋት ምንጭ ነው፡፡ ፍፁም የሆነና ወደ ፍፁምነት የተጠጋ ስልጣን ወደ ህገ ወጥነትና የበዘፈቀደ ድርጊት የማምራት አደገኛ አዝማሚያ አለው፡:የአስተዳደር ህግ በየጊዜው እያደገ የመጣውን የመንግስት ‘ጡንቻ መፈርጠም’ በቅጡ ለመቆጣጠር በታሪክ ሂደት በተጓዳኝ የተፈጠረ የህግ መሳሪያ ነው፡፡ መንግስት ተግባራቱን ለማከናወን ፖሊሲ ቀርጾ፣ ህግ አውጥቶ በሚያስፈጽምበት ወቅት በስልጣን እና በፍትህ (የግለሰቦች ነፃነት) መካከል ቅራኔ መከሰቱ የማይቀር እውነታ ነው፡፡ ጥያቄው ቅራኔው እንዴት ይፈታል? ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ የዚህ ቅራኔ የራሱ ውጤት ሲሆን ቅራኔውን በአንፃራዊ መልኩ ለማስማማትና ለማጣጣም በታሪክ ሂደት ብቅ ያለ ተግባራዊ መሳሪያ ነው፡፡d የአስተዳደር ህግ በዕቅድ ታስቦ የተወለደ ሳይሆን በሁኔታዎች አስገዳጅነት የተፈጠረ ክስተት ነው፡፡ ህጉ በሁለት በጉልበት የማይመጣጠኑ ጐራዎች ማለትም በመንግስትና በግለሰብ መካከል ሚዛናዊነትንና ፍትሐዊነትን ለማስፈን ይጥራል፡፡የአስተዳደር ህግ መንግስት በተለይ ስራ አስፈፃሚውና የአስተዳደር አካላት በህግ ከተፈቀደላቸው የስልጣን ክልል አልፈው ህገ ወጥ ድርጊት እንዳይፈጽሙ ቁጥጥር የሚያደርግና ይህንንም የሚያረጋግጥ ህግ ነው፡፡e በዚህም የህግ የበላይነት እንዲሰፍንና የግለሰቦች ህገ መንግስታዊ መብቶች እንዳይሸራረፉና እንዳይጣሱ ከለላ በመስጠትf ቁልፍ ሚና ይጫወታል፡፡ በተጨማሪም በህግ ማዕቀፍ ውስጥ ያለው ስልጣን በአግባቡና ፍትሐዊ በሆነ መንገድ ለታለመለት ዓላማ ብቻ እንዲውል መሪ ደንቦችን በማስቀመጥና ስነ ስርዓታዊ ቅድመ ሁኔታዎችን በመዘርጋት የተለያዩ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልቶችን በመጠቀም የግለሰቦችና የዜጐች መብቶችና ነፃነቶች እንዳይገሰሱና እንዳይደፈሩ ከለላ በመስጠት የህገ መንግስት ማስፈፀሚያ ሆኖ ያገለግላል፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ምንነትለአስተዳደር ህግ ብያኔ በማበጀት ረገድ የመስኩ ባለሙያዎች በከፊልም ቢሆን የተለያየ እይታ አላቸው፡፡ በእርግጥ የአስተዳደር ህግ የጥናት ወሰኑን አስመልክቶ የሚከሰት ልዩነት ካልሆነ በቀር በመሰረታዊ እሳቤው ላይ የተራራቀ አቋም የለም፡፡ እንደ ህንዳዊው የአስተዳደር ህግ ምሁር አይ.ፒ. ማሴይ አገላለጽ በአስተዳደር ህግ ትርጓሜ ላይ ያለው ልዩነት ምንጩ በየጊዜው እያደገና እየተወሳሰበ የመጣው አስተዳደራዊ ሂደት ሲሆን ይህም ሂደቱን በሙሉ አጠቃሎ የያዘ ወጥ ትርጉም ለመስጠት አስቸጋሪ አድርጐታል፡፡gያም ሆኖ የአስተዳደር ህግ ትርጓሜ ቢያንስ ሁለት መሰረታዊ አላባውያንን ማካተት ይጠበቅበታል፡፡ በመጀመሪያ ደረጃ የአስተዳደር ህግ ከይዘት ይልቅ ስነ ስርዓት ላይ የሚያተኩር ህግ ስለመሆኑ ግልጽ መሆን ይኖርበታል፡፡ ስለሆነም የአስተዳደር ውሳኔው እንዴት ተሰጠ? እንጂ ይዘቱ ትክክል ይሁን አይሁን ፍርድ ቤቶች ሆነ የአስተዳደር ህግ ጣልቃ የሚገባበት ጉዳይ አይደለም፡፡በሁለተኛ ደረጃ ማንኛውም የአስተዳደር ህግ ትርጓሜ የህጉን ዓላማ ግምት ውስጥ ያስገባ ተግባራዊ አቀራረብ እንዲያቅፍ ይጠበቅበታል፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ዋነኛ ዓላማ ወይም ተግባር ስልጣንን መቆጣጠር ነው፡፡h ያ ሲባል ግን የአስተዳደር አካላት ስራቸውን በአግባቡ እንዳይሰሩና እንዳይላወሱ ማነቆ ሆኖ ያግዳቸዋል ማለት አይደለም፡፡ የስልጣን ቁጥጥር ሲባል ማንኛውም ባለስልጣን ሆነ መስሪያ ቤት በህግ ተለይቶ ከተቀመጠለት የስልጣን ገደብ እንዳያልፍና ስልጣን ቢኖረውም እንኳን ስልጣኑን ፍትሐዊና አግባብ በሆነ መንገድ እንዲወጣ ያደርጋል ለማለት ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ዋነኛ ዓላማና ተግባር ስልጣንን በተግባር መቆጣጠር እንደመሆኑ ይህን ባህርዩን ግምት ውስጥ ያላስገባ ብያኔ የተሟላ ተብሎ ሊወሰድ ሆነ ሊወደስ አይችልም፡፡ለንጽጽር እንዲረዳን በመስኩ ባለሙያዎች ለአስተዳደር ህግ የተሰጡ ትርጓሜዎችን እንደሚከተለው እንጠቅሳለን፡፡ቤርናርድ ሺዋሬዝ (Bernard Schwartz) የአስተዳደር ህግን ‘በውክልና ህግ የማውጣትና አስተዳደራዊ ዳኝነት የመስጠት ስልጣን ባላቸው የአስተዳደር መስሪያ ቤቶች ላይ ተፈፃሚ የሚሆን ህግ’ በማለት ይገልፀዋል፡፡i ይህ ብያኔ ጠባብ ከመሆኑ በቀር ስለ ህጉ ይዘት ገላጭ ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ በውክልና ስልጣን ህግ ከማውጣትና ከአስተዳራዊ የዳኝነት ስልጣን በተጨማሪ ይህ ስልጣን በፍርድ የሚታረምበትን የአጣሪ ዳኝነት (judicial review) ስነ-ስርዓት እንዲሁም በፖርላማና በተለያዩ ተቋማት የሚደረግ ቁጥጥርንም ያካትታል፡፡ጄኒንግስ በበኩሉ የአስተዳደር ህግ ማለት ‘አስተዳደርን የሚመለከት ህግ ነው፡፡ ይህ ህግ የአስተዳደር መስሪያ ቤቶችን አደረጃጀት፣ ስልጣንና ግዴታ ይወስናል፡፡’ በማለት ይገልጸዋል፡፡j እንደ አይ.ፒ ማሴይ አስተያየት ይህ ትርጓሜ የአስተዳደር ህግን ከህገ መንግስት በግልጽ አይለይም፡፡ አስተዳደር ወይም ማስተዳደር ማለት ፖለቲካዊና ኢኮኖሚያዊ ስልጣንን በመጠቀም የህብረተሰቡን ጉዳይ መምራት ማለት ነው፡፡k ለዚህም በዋነኛነት አደራ የተጣለባቸው አካላት የአስተዳደር መስሪያ ቤቶች ናቸው፡፡ ምንም እንኳን የእነዚህ ተቋማት ስልጣንና ግዴታ በዝርዝር ህግ ተለይቶ ቢወሰንም የስራ አስፈፃሚው አካል ስልጣን በጠቅላላው የሚቀመጠው በህገ መንግስት ላይ ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ሆነ ህገ መንግስት ሁለቱም የመንግስት አስተዳደርን ወይም የግለሰብና የመንግስትን ግንኙነት የሚመሩ ህጐች እንደመሆናቸው በመካከላቸው ያለው መለያ ክር በጄኒንግ ትርጓሜ ላይ በግልጽ ነጥሮ አልወጣም፡፡ታዋቂው የህገ መንግስት ሊቅ ኤ. ቪ. ዲሴይ የአስተዳደር ህግን በሶስት ደረጃዎች ከፋፍሎ እንዲህ ይገልጸዋል፡፡lየአስተዳደር ህግ የመንግስት ባለስልጣናትን የህግ ስልጣንና ተጠያቂነት የሚወስኑትን የአንድ አገር የህግ ስርዓት የሚመለከት የህግ ክፍል ነው፡፡ግለሰቦች ከመንግስት አካላት ጋር በሚኖራቸው ግንኙነት ያላቸውን መብትና ግዴታ ለይቶ ይወስናል፡፡እነዚህ መብቶችና ግዴታዎች ተፈጻሚ የሚሆኑበትን ስርዓት ይዘረጋል፡፡እንደ ማሴይ ትችት ይህ ትርጓሜ የአስተዳደር ህግ አንድ አካል የሆነውን አጣሪ ዳኝነት (judicial review) ብቻ የሚመለከት እንደመሆኑ በይዘቱ ጠባብ ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ከአጣሪ ዳኝነት በተጨማሪ በህግ አውጭውና በተቋማት (ለምሳሌ በእንባ ጠባቂ ተቋምና ሰብዓዊ መብት ኮሚሽን) አማካይነት የሚደረግ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልቶችንም ያካትታል፡፡ ህጉ ከመንግስት ባለስልጣናትና ከአስተዳደር መስሪያ ቤቶች በተጨማሪ ከፊል የአስተዳደር አካላት ተብለው የሚፈረጁትን መንግስታዊ ኮርፖሬሽኖች፤ ዩኒቨርሲቲዎች እና በከፊል መንግስታዊ ነክ ስልጣን ያላቸውን ማህበራትm በተመለከተም ተፈጻሚነት አለው፡፡በመጨረሻም ታዋቂው የህንድ ምሁር አይ.ፒ. ማሴይ ከላይ ከተሰጡት ሰፋ ያለና የህጉን ባህሪያትና ተግባራት ጠቅልሎ የያዘ ብያኔ እንደሚከተው ያስቀምጣል፡፡የአስተዳደር ህግ የህዝብ አስተዳደር ህግ አካል ሲሆን የአስተዳደርና ከፊል አስተዳደር መስሪያ ቤቶችን አደረጃጀትና ስልጣን የሚደነግግ፣ አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ የሚሰጥበትን ደንብና መርህ የሚያስቀምጥ፣ እንዲሁም ከግለሰቦች መብትና ነፃነት ውሳኔው የሚታረምበትን ስርዓት የሚወስን የህግ ክፍል ነው፡፡nይህ ትርጓሜ ከሞላ ጐደል ሁሉንም የአስተዳደር ህግ ባህርያት አጠቃሎ የያዘ በመሆኑ ተመራጭነት አለው፡፡ ከላይ ከቀረቡት የተለያዩ ትርጓሜዎች የሚከተሉት የጋራ ነጥቦች ይመዘዛሉ::አንደኛ፤ የአስተዳደር ህግ የአስተዳደር እና ከፊል የአስተዳደር አካላት ያላቸውን ስልጣን፣ ተግባርና ኃላፊነት ያጠናል፡፡o የማንኛውም የአስተዳደር አካል የስልጣን ምንጭ የሚገኘው ከማቋቋሚያ አዋጁ (Enabling Act) ሲሆን አልፎ አልፎ በሌላ ዝርዝር ህግ ይወሰናል፡፡ በአስተዳደር ህግ የመጀመሪያው ጥያቄ ውሳኔ ወይም እርምጃ የወሰደው አካል በህግ የተሰጠው ስልጣን አለው? የሚል ነው፡፡ ከሌለ ድርጊቱ ከስልጣን በላይ ስለሆነ ዋጋ አልባ ተደርጎ ይቆጠራል፡፡ ከድርጊቱ በስተጀርባ የህግ ስልጣን ካለ ውሳኔ ሰጪው ስልጣኑን በአግባቡና ፍትሐዊ በሆነ መንገድ እንደተገለገለ ይጣራል፡፡ ካልሆነ ስልጣኑን ያለ አግባብ በሚገለገለው አካል ላይ ህጉ ቁጥጥር ያደርግበታል፡፡ሁለተኛ፤ ህጉ ስልጣንን በመገልገል ሂደት ተፈጻሚ የሚሆኑ መሪ ደንቦችን፤ ስነ ስርዓቶችንና መርሆዎችን ያስቀምጣል፡፡ ህግ አውጭው ለአስተዳደር አካላት ስልጣን ሲሰጥ ስልጣኑ ተግባር ላይ በሚውልበት ጊዜ ህጋዊነቱንና ፍትሐዊነቱን የሚያረጋግጥ የስነ ስርዓት ቅድመ ሁኔታ አብሮ እንዲደነግግ ይጠበቃል፡፡ ለምሳሌ ያህል ደንብና መመሪያ በማውጣት ረገድ ከሚመለከተው አካል ጋር የመመካከርና የህትመት ቅድመ ሁኔታዎች፣ አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ ሲሰጥ የመሰማት መብትና የኢ- አድሎአዊነት መርሆዎችን በአስተዳደር ስነ ስርዓት ህግ ወይም በዝርዝር ህግ ማውጣት ይኖርበታል፡፡ እነዚህም በአስተዳደር ሂደቱ ውስጥ ፍትሐዊነትን በማረጋገጥ ረገድ ጉልህ ስፍራ አላቸው፡፡ ስልጣን በዘፈቀደ ሳይሆን በአግባቡ ስራ ላይ ዋለ ለማለት የሚቻለውም ያኔ ነው፡፡ሶስተኛ፤ የአስተዳደር ህግ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልቶችን በተመለከተ የሚያጠና ህግ ነው፡፡p ልጓም የሌለው ስልጣን ለዜጎች መብትና ነፃነት ፀር ነው፡፡ የተጠያቂነት መርሕ እውን እንዲሆን የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልቶችም በግልጽ ተለይተው መቀመጥ ይኖርባቸዋል፡፡ ስለሆነም የአስተዳደር ህግ በፍርድ ቤት፤ በአስተዳደር ፍርድ ቤት፤ በህግ አውጭው እና በተቋማት የሚደረጉ የስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ መንገዶችን በተግባር እየፈተነ ያጠናል፡፡አራተኛ፤ ህጉ በአስተዳደር አካላት ወይም በመንግስት ባለስልጣናት በተወሰዱ እርምጃዎች መብታቸው ለተጣሰና ነፃነታቸው ለተገፋ ዜጎች መፍትሔ ይሰጣል፡፡q መብት ያለ መፍትሔ ‘ላም አለኝ በሰማይ’ ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ መብቱ የተጓደለበት ሰው አቤቱታ አቅርቦ መፍትሔ የሚጠይቅበትና የሚያገኝበት የህግ ክፍል ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ግብና ተግባራትየአስተዳደር ህግ ዋነኛ ዓላማና ተግባር ስልጣንን መቆጣጠር ስለመሆኑ በመስኩ ምሁራን ስምምነት የተደረሰበት ጉዳይ ሆኗል፡፡ ሆኖም በዚህ ብቻ ሳይወሰን ሌሎች ተዛማጅ ተግባራትንም ያከናውናል፡፡ እንደ ብዙዎች የአስተዳደር ህግ ሊቃውንት የአስተዳደር ህግ ዋነኛ ግብ አስተዳደራዊ ፍትህን ማስፈን ሲሆን የሚከተሉት ተግባራት ይኖሩታል፡፡ስልጣን መቆጣጠር (Control Function)የአስተዳደር ህግ ስራ አስፈፃሚው የመንግስት አካልና የአስተዳደር መስሪያ ቤቶች፣ ሚኒስትሮች፣ ባለስልጣናትና ሌሎች ሹመኞች በህግ ተለይቶ የተሰጣቸውን ስልጣን አልፈው እንዳይሄዱና ህጋዊ ስልጣናቸውንም አለአግባብ እንዳይገለገሉበት ለመቆጣጠር የሚያስችለን የህግ ክፍል ነው፡፡ በመሆኑም ስልጣን በህገ ወጥ መንገድ አለአግባብ ጥቅም ላይ እንዳይውል በመከላከል እንደ መገደቢያ መሳሪያነት ያገለግላል፡፡rግዴታ ማስፈፀም (Command Function)በአስተዳደሩ በሚፈፀም ድርጊት የዜጋው መብት ከሚጣስበት ሁኔታ ባልተናነስ ህጋዊ ግዴታን አለመወጣት በግል መብትና ጥቅም ላይ የከፋ ጉዳት ያስከትላል፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ስልጣን በልኩና በአግባቡ ተግባር ላይ እንዲውል ከመቆጣጠር ባሻገር የአስተዳደር አካላት በህግ ተለይቶ የተጣለባቸውን ግዴታ እንዲወጡ አስገዳጅ የስነ ስርዓትና ተቋሟዊ ስልቶችን ይቀይሳል፡፡s አስገዳጅ የህግ ማዕቀፍ ከሌለ ግዴታ በፈቃድ ላይ የተመሰረተ ውዴታ ብቻ ሆኖ ይቀራል፡፡የአስተዳደር ፍትህ ማስፈንበየትኛውም ህግን ለማስፈፀም ስልጣን በተሰጠው የመንግስት አካል የሚወሰዱ አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔዎችና እርምጃዎች የህዝብ አመኔታና ተቀባይነት እንዲያገኙ ፍትሐዊነታቸው በተጨባጭ ሊታይ ይገባል፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ አይነተኛ ተልዕኮ የአስተዳደር ፍትህን ማስፈን ነው፡፡tግልጽነት ተጠያቂነትና የህዝብ ተሳትፎየአስተዳደር ህግ በመንግስት አስተዳደር ስራ ውስጥ ግልፅነት፣ ተጠያቂነትና የህዝብ ተሳትፎ እንዲረጋገጥ ተግባራዊ መሳሪያ በመሆን ያገለግላል፡፡ የስልጣን ልኩ ሳይታወቅና ከልክ በላይ የሆነ ስልጣን መቆጣጠሪያ ስልቱ ሳይቀየስ ስለተጠያቂነት ማውራት የማይመስል ነገር ነው፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ ዜጎች መረጃ የማግኘት መብታቸውን በህግ የሚያረጋግጥ ከመሆኑም በላይ በህዝብ አስተዳደር ውስጥ በንቃት እንዲሳተፉ የሚያስችሉ የስነ- ስርዓት ደንቦችን ይዘረጋል፡፡ለተበደለ ወገን መፍትሔ መስጠትየአስተዳደር ህግ ዜጎች ለደረሰባቸው በደል በፍርድ ቤት ወይም ከፍርድ ቤት ውጭ ባሉ መንገዶች አቤቱታ አቅርበው በአነስተኛ ወጪ እና በቀላሉ መፍትሔ እንዲያገኙ ያስችላቸዋል፡፡ ስለ አስተዳደር ህግ በተደጋጋሚ ቢወራ ‘አንጀት ጠብ’ የሚል፣ የሚጨበጥ፣ የሚዳሰስ፣ መፍትሔ እስከሌለ ድረስ ረብ የለሽነቱን ያጎላው እንደሆነ እንጂ የሚፈይደው ነገር የለም፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህጋቸው በዳበረ አገራት የመንግስት ባለስልጣናት በህዝብ ላይ ለሚፈፅሟቸው አስተዳደራዊ በደሎች በዝርዝር የተቀመጡ የመፍትሔ መንገዶች አሏቸው፡፡በአንድ አገር ውስጥ የአስተዳደር ህግ ከላይ የተጠቀሱትን ተግባራቱን ውጤታማ በሆነ መንገድ ተወጥቷል ለማለት ከአገሪቱ የመንግስት አወቃቀር ስርዓት፤ ህገ መንግስታዊና ዲሞክራሲያዊ ዕድገትና የአስተዳደር ህግ ተቋማት መዳበር ከግምት ውስጥ በማስገባት አንፃራዊ በሆነ መልኩ የሚለካ ጉዳይ ነው፡፡ በአጠቃላይ ግን በአንድ አገር ውስጥ ሁሉን አቀፍ ውጤታማና ከፍተኛ ደረጃ ላይ የደረሰ የአስተዳደር ህግ ስርዓት አለ ለማለት ከሚከተሉት ሶስት ዋነኛ መርሆዎች አንጻር እየተመነዘረ መገምገም አለበት፡፡የአስተዳደር ፍትህየአስተዳደር በደል በፍርድ የሚታረምበትና አስተዳደራዊ ፍትሕ የሚገኝበት የፍርድ ሂደትና መንገድ እንዲሁም ተሞክሮ በአገራችን ውስጥ በግልጽ የሚታወቅ አይደለም፡፡ የአስተዳደር ፍትሕ የአስተዳደር ህግ ‘ልቡ’ ነው ማለት ይቻላል፡፡ አስተዳደራዊ በደል አለቅጥ በተንሰራፋበት አገር ውስጥ የአስተዳደር ህግ ትንፋሽ ያጠረው ህላዌነቱ የሚያጠራጥር ህግ ነው፡፡ የከለላው መጠን የአስተዳደር ፍትህ ደረጃ አንጻራዊ መለኪያ ነው፡፡የስራ አስፈፃሚው ተጠያቂነትየዚህ መርህ ዋና አላማ ህግ የማስፈፀም ስልጣን ያለው አካል ለሚፈፅመው ድርጊት እና ለሚወስደው እርምጃ በህዝብ ፊት ተጠርቶ እንዲጠየቅና ማብራሪያ እንዲሰጥ ለማስገደድ ነው፡፡ ማንኛውም የመንግስት ባለስልጣንን የተቀበለ አካል ወይም ባለስልጣን የሚፈፅመው ድርጊት የህዝቡን ጥቅም የሚያስጠብቅ መሆን ይኖርበታል፡፡ ውሳኔ ሰጭው ለድርጊቱ ትክክለኛነትና ፖለቲካዊ ተገቢነት ህግ አውጭው ፊት ተጠርቶ በመቅረብ ለማብራሪያ የሚገደድበት ስርዓት ከሌለ በቀር ተጠያቂነት አለ ማለት አይቻልም፡፡ ከዚህ በተጨማሪ አስተዳደሩ በዜጎች መብት ለሚያደርሰው ጉዳት በፍርድ ሂደት ለድርጊቱ ተጠያቂ ሊሆን ይገባል፡፡መልካም አስተዳደርበዚህ መርህ መሰረት አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ አሰጣጥ ሁሉን አቀፍ ተቀባይነት ላገኙ መሪ ደንቦች መገዛት አለበት፡፡ እነዚህም የፍትሀዊነት፣ምክንያታዊነት፣ ሚዛናዊነትና የግልፅነት መርሆዎችን ያጠቃልላሉ፡፡ አስተዳደራዊ ውሳኔ በህጉ መሰረት መወሰዱ ብቻ በቂ አይደለም፡፡ የውሳኔው መሰረት ከቅን ልቦና የመነጨ፣ለባለጉዳዩ ግልፅ በሆነ አሰራርና መንገድ ያልተወሰደ ካልሆነ በስተቀር የመንግስት አስተዳደር ወደ መልካምነት ደረጃ ለመድረስ ገና ብዙ ይቀረዋል፡፡ የአስተዳደር ህግ እነዚህን መርሆዎች እንዲዳብሩ ከማድረግ አንፃር አይነተኛ ሚና ይጫወታል፡፡ ስለሆነም የህጉ የእድገት ደረጃ የአንድ አገር የመልካም አስተዳደር ሁኔታ ጠቋሚ መለኪያ ነው ማለት እንችላለን፡

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Telegram & Live News & Views

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Stories, ideas, reviews

New and Used Car Reviews, Comparisons and News | Driving

The leading online destination for the latest automotive news, reviews, photos and video for Canadians. Driving's team of award-winning journalists publishes original, fresh content in print, online, on smartphone and tablet.

Orange Street News

VANDALISM? CORRUPTION? HAVE NO WHERE ELSE TO TURN? NO STORY TOO BIG OR SMALL THE OSN WILL INVESTIGATE! Please email news tips to Hildelysiak@gmail.com

Breaking News, Entertainment, Sports & College Life | COED

COED.com is a leading news, entertainment, sports, and lifestyle destination for millennials and beyond.

Cannabis News World

The latest cannabis news from around the world. Regional and categorised .Subscribe today

World Airline News

Your Central Hub for the Latest News and Photos powered by AirlinersGallery.com Images. Airline Videos, Route Maps and Aircraft Slide Shows. Framable Prints and Posters.

Market Business News

The latest business news

Dating, Breaking News, Celeb Gossip & Everything College | CC

Advice on student style, collegiate dating discussion guides, relationship advice and women's studies.

Latest Hacking News

We offer the latest hacking news and cyber security courses for ethical hackers, penetration testers, IT security experts and essentially anyone with hacker interests.

The Republican News

Bringing news to the public

Foucault News

News and resources on French thinker Michel Foucault (1926-1984)

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Stories, ideas, reviews

WORLD ORGANIC NEWS

Decarbonise the Air, Recarbonise the Soil

AMA NEws

Free PLR Content

WTX News

WTX News Latest & Breaking News from around the World Daily - News Briefings delivered with your morning coffee!

Pit's Fritztown News

A German Expat's Life in Fredericksburg/Texas

The Good News

Discussion of the Best News in the World, the Gospel of Jesus, and related topics

INSIGHT News

Be Informed

Celebrity News

daily quotes

Bioplastics News

Plastics in the Circular Economy

Tech News for You

Technology News Made Easy

SOUTHERN NEWS

ALL THE SNEWS THAT'S FIT TO PRINT

Alt News

Alternative News and Views in the Post-Truth World

nuclear-news

The News That Matters about the Nuclear Industry Fukushima Chernobyl Mayak Three Mile Island Atomic Testing Radiation Isotope

The Orkney News

bringing you the community news in Orkney

New Lune

A blog full of tips, inspiration and freebies!

Hugh's Views & News  

A man with dyslexia writing about this and that and everything else!

Momus News

Humorous News, Photos, and Short Fiction

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